The Genome of the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and Its Implications for Cell Type Evolution

@article{Ryan2013TheGO,
  title={The Genome of the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and Its Implications for Cell Type Evolution},
  author={Joseph F. Ryan and Kevin Pang and Christine E. Schnitzler and Anh-Dao Nguyen and R. Travis Moreland and David Simmons and Bernard Koch and Warren R. Francis and Paul Havlak and Stephen A. Smith and Nicholas H. Putnam and Steven H. D. Haddock and Casey W. Dunn and Tyra G. Wolfsberg and James C. Mullikin and Mark Q. Martindale and Andreas D. Baxevanis},
  journal={Science},
  year={2013},
  volume={342}
}
An understanding of ctenophore biology is critical for reconstructing events that occurred early in animal evolution. [...] Key Result Our phylogenomic analyses of both amino acid positions and gene content suggest that ctenophores rather than sponges are the sister lineage to all other animals. Mnemiopsis lacks many of the genes found in bilaterian mesodermal cell types, suggesting that these cell types evolved independently.Expand
The phylogenetic position of ctenophores and the origin(s) of nervous systems
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It is necessary to reconsider the homology of eumetazoan traits not only between ctenophores and bilaterians, but also between cnidarians and bizards, as well as between placozoans and poriferans. Expand
Horizontally transferred genes in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi
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This study applied tests of phylogenetic incongruence to identify nine genes that were likely transferred horizontally early in ctenophore evolution from bacteria and non-metazoan eukaryotes and found that the majority of these horizontally transferred genes were expressed during development, suggesting that they are active and play a role in the biology of M. leidyi. Expand
Regeneration in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi occurs in the absence of a blastema, requires cell division, and is temporally separable from wound healing
TLDR
Ctenophore regeneration takes place through a process of cell proliferation-dependent non-blastemal-like regeneration and is temporally separable of the wound healing process, and it is proposed that undifferentiated cells assume the correct location of missing structures and differentiate in place. Expand
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Morphological characters give very strong support for the Porifera-first hypothesis, and the major losses implied in the Ctenophora-first theory show absolutely no adaptational advantages. Expand
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Reassessments of the diversity and complexity of developmental control genes in the earliest animal ancestors need to go hand-in-hand with complementary advances in comparative morphology, phylogenetics and palaeontology to clarify the complexity of the last common ancestor of all animals. Expand
Gastrulation in Cnidaria: The key to an understanding of phylogeny or the chaos of secondary modifications?
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In cnidarians, the morphogenetic basis of gastrulation contains only a very weak phylogenetic signal and can have only limited application in phylogenetic reconstructions, so comparative studies of the ontogeny of basal metazoans shed light on the general rules of the evolution of Morphogenetic processes, crucial for an understanding of the early history of the animal kingdom. Expand
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