The Genome of the African Trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei

@article{Berriman2005TheGO,
  title={The Genome of the African Trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei},
  author={Matthew Berriman and Elodie Ghedin and Christiane Hertz-Fowler and Gaëlle Blandin and Hubert Renauld and Daniella Castanheira Bartholomeu and Nicola J Lennard and Elisabet V. Caler and Nancy Hamlin and Brian J. Haas and Ulrike B{\"o}hme and Linda I. Hannick and Martin Aslett and J. Shallom and Lucio Marcello and Li-li Hou and Bill Wickstead and U. Cecilia M. Alsmark and Claire Arrowsmith and Rebecca J. Atkin and Andrew Barron and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Bringaud and Karen L. Brooks and Mark Carrington and Inna Cherevach and Tracey Chillingworth and Carol M. Churcher and Louise N Clark and Craig Corton and Ann Cronin and Robin M. Davies and Jon Doggett and Appolinaire Djikeng and Tamara V. Feldblyum and Mark C. Field and Audrey Fraser and Ian B. Goodhead and Zahra Hance and D. Harper and Barbara R Harris and Heidi Hauser and Jessica B. Hostetler and Alasdair C. Ivens and Kay Jagels and David Johnson and Justin Johnson and Kristine Jones and Arnaud Kerhornou and Hean L. Koo and Natasha L. Larke and Scott M. Landfear and Christopher Larkin and Vanessa Leech and Alexandra Line and Angela Lord and Annette MacLeod and Paul Mooney and Sharon Moule and David M. A. Martin and Gareth W. Morgan and Karen L. Mungall and Halina T. Norbertczak and Doug Ormond and Grace Pai and Christopher S. Peacock and Jeremy D. Peterson and Michael A. Quail and Ester H Rabbinowitsch and Marie-Ad{\`e}le Rajandream and Christopher Reitter and Steven L. Salzberg and Mandy Sanders and Seth Schobel and Sarah Sharp and Mark Simmonds and Anjana J. Simpson and Luke J. Tallon and C. Michael R. Turner and Andrew Tait and Adrian Tivey and Susan E Van Aken and Danielle Walker and David Wanless and Shiliang Wang and Brian White and Owen White and Sally Whitehead and John Robert Woodward and Jennifer R. Wortman and Mark D. Adams and T Martin Embley and Keith Gull and Elisabetta Ullu and J. David Barry and Alan H. Fairlamb and Fred R. Opperdoes and Barclay G. Barrell and J. E. Donelson and Neil Hall and Claire M. Fraser and Sara E. Melville and Najib M. El-Sayed},
  journal={Science},
  year={2005},
  volume={309},
  pages={416 - 422}
}
African trypanosomes cause human sleeping sickness and livestock trypanosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. We present the sequence and analysis of the 11 megabase-sized chromosomes of Trypanosoma brucei. The 26-megabase genome contains 9068 predicted genes, including ∼900 pseudogenes and ∼1700 T. brucei–specific genes. Large subtelomeric arrays contain an archive of 806 variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes used by the parasite to evade the mammalian immune system. Most VSG genes are… 
Genome of the Avirulent Human-Infective Trypanosome—Trypanosoma rangeli
TLDR
Comparison of nuclear and mitochondrial genes indicates that T. rangeli and T. cruzi are equidistant from T. brucei, and reveals new aspects of trypanosome co-evolution within the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts.
Chromosome-Wide Analysis of Gene Function by RNA Interference in the African Trypanosome
TLDR
Methods for systematic mRNA ablation by RNA interference (RNAi) and for phenotypic analysis, together with online data dissemination are reported, which represents the first systematic analysis of gene function in a parasitic organism.
Comparative analysis of the kinomes of three pathogenic trypanosomatids: Leishmania major, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi
TLDR
A genome-wide analysis of protein kinases of these three trypanosomatids reveals a large set of PKs, comprising approximately 2% of each genome, suggesting a key role for phosphorylation in parasite biology.
A draft genome for the African crocodilian trypanosome Trypanosoma grayi
TLDR
This dataset comprises genomic DNA sequences assembled de novo into contigs, encompassing over 10,000 annotated putative open reading frames and predicted protein products, and it is demonstrated that T. grayi is more closely related to Trypanosoma cruzi than it is to the African trypanosomes T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax.
The genomic basis of host and vector specificity in non-pathogenic trypanosomatids
TLDR
It is proposed that the contrasting genomic features of these species is linked to their mode of transmission from their insect vector to their mammalian host, and selection acting to decrease the genomic nucleotide cost.
Trypanosomatid comparative genomics: Contributions to the study of parasite biology and different parasitic diseases
TLDR
The recent advances in the comparative genomics of the Tri-Tryp genomes are reviewed, which includes data on additional sequences derived from other trypanosmatid species, as well as recent data on gene expression and functional genomics.
The Genome Sequence of Trypanosoma cruzi, Etiologic Agent of Chagas Disease
TLDR
Although the Tritryp lack several classes of signaling molecules, their kinomes contain a large and diverse set of protein kinases and phosphatases; their size and diversity imply previously unknown interactions and regulatory processes, which may be targets for intervention.
In-depth analysis of the genome of Trypanosoma evansi, an etiologic agent of surra
TLDR
The results revealed the genomic determinants of T. evansi, which encoded specific biological characteristics that distinguished them from other related trypanosome species.
Comparative genomics and molecular characterization of N-alpha Acetyltransferase in Trypanosomes for drug target identification
TLDR
A Trypanosoma cruzi acetyltransferase gene family, identified in the genome project, was chosen for functional characterization as a first step to evaluate its potential as drug target, and findings from the studies offer opportunities for more targeted functional studies as well as tools for epidemiology.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 101 REFERENCES
The Genome of the Kinetoplastid Parasite, Leishmania major
TLDR
The organization of protein-coding genes into long, strand-specific, polycistronic clusters and lack of general transcription factors in the L. major, Trypanosoma brucei, and Tritryp genomes suggest that the mechanisms regulating RNA polymerase II–directed transcription are distinct from those operating in other eukaryotes, although the trypanosomatids appear capable of chromatin remodeling.
The DNA sequence of chromosome I of an African trypanosome: gene content, chromosome organisation, recombination and polymorphism.
TLDR
The sequence and analysis of the 1.1 Mb chromosome I, which encodes approximately 400 predicted genes organised into directional clusters, is reported, which indicates an active process of amplification and gene conversion in the African trypanosome.
Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum
TLDR
The genome sequence of P. falciparum clone 3D7 is reported, which is the most (A + T)-rich genome sequenced to date and is being exploited in the search for new drugs and vaccines to fight malaria.
Galactose metabolism is essential for the African sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma brucei
TLDR
The cloning of T. brucei galE and functional characterization show that enzymes and transporters involved in galactose metabolism may be considered as potential therapeutic targets against African trypanosomiasis.
Comparative Genomics of Trypanosomatid Parasitic Protozoa
TLDR
No evidence that these species are descended from an ancestor that contained a photosynthetic endosymbiont is revealed, and a conserved core proteome of about 6200 genes in large syntenic polycistronic gene clusters is revealed.
The sequence and analysis of Trypanosoma brucei chromosome II.
TLDR
The sequence of chromosome II from Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness, is reported, suggesting that this region may be a site for modular de novo construction of VSG gene diversity during transposition/gene conversion events.
Trypanosomal antioxidants and emerging aspects of redox regulation in the trypanosomatids.
TLDR
The detoxification of peroxide is catalyzed by a trypanothione-dependent system that has no counterpart in mammals, and thus ranks as one of the biochemical peculiarities of trypanosomatids.
The Trypanosoma cruzi Proteome
TLDR
A whole-organism, proteomic analysis of the four life-cycle stages of Trypanosoma cruzi found that the four parasite stages appear to use distinct energy sources, including histidine for stages present in the insect vectors and fatty acids by intracellular amastigotes.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...