The Genetics and Ecology of Reinforcement

@article{OrtizBarrientos2009TheGA,
  title={The Genetics and Ecology of Reinforcement},
  author={Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos and Alicia Grealy and Patrik Nosil},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  year={2009},
  volume={1168}
}
Reinforcement, the evolution of prezygotic reproductive barriers by natural selection in response to maladaptive hybridization, is one of the most debated processes in speciation. Critics point to “fatal” conceptual flaws for sympatric evolution of prezygotic isolation, but recent theoretical and empirical work on genetics and ecology of reinforcement suggests that such criticisms can be overcome. New studies provide evidence for reinforcement in frogs, fish, insects, birds, and plants. While… Expand
Reinforcement’s incidental effects on reproductive isolation between conspecifics
TLDR
It is suggested that CER is likely if (1) the rate of gene flow between conspecific populations is low; (2) divergent selection acts on phenotypes involved in reinforcement between sympatric and allopatric populations; and (3) the genetic response to reinforcement differs among conspespecific populations subject to parallel reinforcing selection. Expand
Reinforcement in plants.
  • R. Hopkins
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The New phytologist
  • 2013
TLDR
This work discusses how all three strategies for the investigation of the process of reinforcement find evidence consistent with reinforcement occurring in plants, and focuses largely on case studies, and uses research on Phlox drummondii to illustrate the importance of testing alternative hypotheses. Expand
Reinforcement as an initiator of population divergence and speciation
TLDR
How this process can occur, the conditions under which it is most likely to occur, and the empirical data needed to evaluate the hypothesis that reinforcement can initiate speciation are described are described. Expand
Selfing, Local Mate Competition, and Reinforcement*
  • M. Rausher
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The American Naturalist
  • 2017
TLDR
The conditions under which this syndrome can favor reinforcement are determined, an increase in discrimination through change at locus 1, in an outcrossing species that experiences gene flow from a highly selfing species. Expand
The targets of selection during reinforcement
TLDR
The most straightforward interpretation of the process of reinforcement as envisioned by Dobzhansky (1940) is direct natural selection for genetic compatibility favouring pure forms over hybrids, resulting in indirect selection for differentiation in prezygotic phenotypes. Expand
Strong Reinforcing Selection in a Texas Wildflower
TLDR
This work quantifies the strength of reinforcing selection in the Texas wildflower Phlox drummondii using a strategy that weds a population genetic model with field data and finds that selection on flower color genes generated by reinforcement is exceptionally strong. Expand
Correlated evolution of male and female reproductive traits drive a cascading effect of reinforcement in Drosophila yakuba
TLDR
The results provide a novel example of reinforcement acting on a postmating-prezygotic trait in males, resulting in a cascade of reproductive isolation among conspecific populations, as well as a detailed understanding of the mechanisms limiting the spread of reinforced phenotypes throughout a species' range. Expand
Hybridization and postzygotic isolation promote reinforcement of male mating preferences in a diverse group of fishes with traditional sex roles
TLDR
Genetic and morphological data are used to demonstrate that hybridization is ongoing between orangethroat and rainbow darters and used hybrids collected from nature to measure postzygotic barriers across two hybrid generations and indicate that selection to avoid hybridization promotes the evolution of male‐driven behavioral isolation via reinforcement in this system. Expand
Hybridization and postzygotic isolation promote reinforcement of male mating preferences in a diverse group of fishes with traditional sex roles
TLDR
Genetic and morphological data are used to demonstrate that hybridization is ongoing between orangethroat and rainbow darters and used hybrids collected from nature to measure postzygotic barriers across two hybrid generations and indicate that selection to avoid hybridization promotes the evolution of male-driven behavioral isolation via reinforcement in this system. Expand
Genomic Signatures of Reinforcement
TLDR
Two major goals are to understand if genome scans for particular patterns of genetic variation could identify reinforcement, isolate the genetic basis of reinforcement, or infer the conditions under which reinforcement evolved. Expand
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How do species that interbreed become reproductively isolated? If hybrids are less fit than parental types, natural selection should promote reproductive isolation by favoring the evolution ofExpand
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These findings demonstrate the joint effects of reinforcement, ecological adaptation and gene flow on progress towards speciation in the wild in Timema cristinae walking-stick insects. Expand
A TEST OF ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESES FOR THE EVOLUTION OF REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION BETWEEN SPADEFOOT TOADS: SUPPORT FOR THE REINFORCEMENT HYPOTHESIS
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TLDR
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TLDR
Congruence of the results for allele frequencies versus fixation probabilities suggests that similar patterns of reinforcement are expected during different stages of the speciation process. Expand
THE ROLE OF REINFORCEMENT IN SPECIATION
TLDR
It is concluded that reinforcement has probably not been looked for where it is most likely to occur and many further areas of study are pinpointed that may ultimately provide a strong assessment of the importance of reinforcement in speciation. Expand
Divergent Outcomes of Reinforcement Speciation: The Relative Importance of Assortative Mating and Migration Modification
TLDR
The results reveal that assortative mating may evolve faster and under a broader range of biological conditions than migration modification, however, direct evolutionary interactions favor migration modification when populations experience strong divergent selection. Expand
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