The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

  title={The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans},
  author={Sarah A. Tishkoff and Floyd A. Reed and Françoise R. Friedlaender and Christopher Ehret and Alessia Ranciaro and Alain Froment and Jibril B. Hirbo and Agnes A. Awomoyi and J. M. Bodo and Ogobara K. Doumbo and Muntaser E. Ibrahim and Abdalla T. Juma and Maritha J. Kotze and Godfrey Lema and Jason H. Moore and Holly M. Mortensen and Thomas Nyambo and Sabah A. Omar and Kweli Powell and Gideon Stephan Pretorius and Michael W. Smith and M. Thera and Charles O Wambebe and James L. Weber and Scott M. Williams},
  pages={1035 - 1044}
African Origins The modern human originated in Africa and subsequently spread across the globe. However, the genetic relationships among the diverse populations on the African continent have been unclear. Tishkoff et al. (p. 1035; see the cover, published online 30 April) provide a detailed genetic analysis of most major groups of African populations. The findings suggest that Africans represent 14 ancestral populations. Populations tend to be of mixed ancestry which documents historical… 

Revisiting the demographic history of Central African populations from a genetic perspective

How technology and population genetic methods have advanced to give more detailed inferences about population structure, migrations, admixture patterns, timing of admixture, sex-biased admixtures, and inferences of selection and adaptive introgression in rainforest hunter-gatherers and other African populations is reviewed.

Dispersals and genetic adaptation of Bantu-speaking populations in Africa and North America

The analysis of the genetic diversity of Bantu speakers revealed adaptive introgression of genes that likely originated in other African populations, including specific immune-related genes, and applied this information to African Americans suggests that gene flow from Africa into the Americas was more complex than previously thought.

Implications of African genetic diversity

High levels of genetic diversity exist among different african ethnic groups, and nearly one-third of all languages spoken in the world today are associated with the more than 2,000 ethnolinguistic groups identified in africa.

Population genetics: Genetic landscapes out of Africa

  • M. Muers
  • Biology
    Nature Reviews Genetics
  • 2009
This work has increased the scale of genetic analysis of African populations to include a much wider range of groups in a genome-wide study than has previously been done, and found genetic evidence of 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa.

Genomic Variation in Seven Khoe-San Groups Reveals Adaptation and Complex African History

Genetic variation in various sub-Saharan populations did not localize the origin of modern humans to a single geographic region within Africa; instead, it indicated a history of admixture and stratification, and illustrated the importance of African genomic diversity in understanding human evolutionary history.

Complex Ancient Genetic Structure and Cultural Transitions in Southern African Populations

Fine-mapping of these components in southern African populations reveals admixture and cultural reversion involving several Khoesan groups, and highlights that Bantu speakers and Coloured individuals have different mixtures of these ancient ancestries.

Dissecting the Within-Africa Ancestry of Populations of African Descent in the Americas

While continental ancestry reflects gender-specific admixture processes influenced by different socio-historical practices in the Americas, the within-Africa maternal ancestry reflects the diverse colonial histories of the slave trade.

The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity

It is found that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans, which could track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century.

Ancient DNA Studies and African Population History

In the last three decades, genetics played an increasingly important role in the inference of human history. Genetic studies provided conclusive information that helped to answer challenging

The Episode of Genetic Drift Defining the Migration of Humans out of Africa Is Derived from a Large East African Population Size

Both phylogenetic and network analysis indicate that east Africans possess more ancestral lineages in comparison to various continental populations placing them at the root of the human evolutionary tree, and affirm east Africa as the likely spot from which migration towards Asia has taken place.



African human diversity, origins and migrations.

Low Levels of Genetic Divergence across Geographically and Linguistically Diverse Populations from India

The results suggest that the frequencies of many genetic variants are distinctive in India compared to other parts of the world and that the effects of population heterogeneity on the production of false positives in association studies may be smaller in Indians than might be expected for such a geographically and linguistically diverse subset of the human population.

African genetic diversity: implications for human demographic history, modern human origins, and complex disease mapping.

This review summarizes patterns and the evolutionary origins of genetic diversity present in African populations, as well as their implications for the mapping of complex traits, including disease susceptibility.

The Genetic Structure of Pacific Islanders

The analysis indicates the ancestors of Polynesians moved through Melanesia relatively rapidly and only intermixed to a very modest degree with the indigenous populations there, contributing to a resolution to the debates over Polynesian origins and their past interactions with Melanesians.

History of click-speaking populations of Africa inferred from mtDNA and Y chromosome genetic variation.

New genetic data show that the Sandawe and southern African click speakers share rare mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups; however, common ancestry of the 2 populations dates back >35,000 years, which suggests that at the time of the spread of agriculture and pastoralism, the click-speaking populations were already isolated from one another.

Genetic Variation and Population Structure in Native Americans

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Estimating African American admixture proportions by use of population-specific alleles.

Significant nonrandom association between two markers located 22 cM apart (FY-null and AT3) is detected, most likely due to admixture linkage disequilibrium created in the interbreeding of the two parental populations, emphasize the importance of admixed populations as a useful resource for mapping traits with different prevalence in two parental population.

Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes

The data suggest that patterns of differentiation and gene flow in Africa have differed for men and women in the recent evolutionary past, and infer that sex-biased rates of admixture and/or language borrowing between expanding Bantu farmers and local hunter-gatherers played an important role in influencing patterns of genetic variation during the spread of African agriculture in the last 4000 years.

Elevated male European and female African contributions to the genomes of African American individuals

There is a threefold higher European male contribution compared with European females to the genomes of African American individuals meaning that admixture-based gene discovery will have the most power for the autosomes and will be more limited for X chromosome analysis.

Why did modern human populations disperse from Africa ca. 60,000 years ago? A new model.

  • P. Mellars
  • Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2006
It is suggested here that the answer to why it took these populations approximately 100,000 years to disperse from Africa to other regions of the world has never been clearly resolved may lie partly in the results of recent DNA studies of present-day African populations, combined with a spate of new archaeological discoveries in Africa.