The Genetic Code Is One in a Million

  title={The Genetic Code Is One in a Million},
  author={S. Freeland and L. Hurst},
  journal={Journal of Molecular Evolution},
Abstract. [...] Key Result We find that if the bias affects all codon positions equally, as might be expected were the code adapted to a mutational environment with transition/transversion bias, then any reasonable transition/transversion bias increases the relative efficiency of the second base by an order of magnitude. In addition, if we employ weightings to allow for biases in translation, then only 1 in every million random alternative codes generated is more efficient than the natural code. We thus…Expand
The impact of including tRNA content on the optimality of the genetic code
On the efficiency of the genetic code after frameshift mutations
Codon Usage Decreases the Error Minimization Within the Genetic Code
Early fixation of an optimal genetic code.
Load minimization of the genetic code: history does not explain the pattern
  • S. Freeland, L. Hurst
  • Computer Science
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1998


A Quantitative Measure of Error Minimization in the Genetic Code
The code within the codons.
Degeneracy of the Genetic Code: Extent, Nature, and Genetic Implications
An Analysis of the Metabolic Theory of the Origin of the Genetic Code
  • R. Amirnovin
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of Molecular Evolution
  • 1997
The genetic code and error transmission.
  • C. Alff-Steinberger
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1969
On the origin of the genetic code.
Genetic Code: Aspects of Organization
Rates of transition and transversion in coding sequences since the human-rodent divergence.
Evolution of the genetic code.
  • B. K. Davis
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Progress in biophysics and molecular biology
  • 1999
Evidence suggesting a non-random character to nucleotide replacements in naturally occurring mutations.
  • W. Fitch
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of molecular biology
  • 1967