The Genesis of Russian Warlordism: Violence and Governance during the First World War and the Civil War

  title={The Genesis of Russian Warlordism: Violence and Governance during the First World War and the Civil War},
  author={Joshua A. Sanborn},
  journal={Contemporary European History},
  pages={195 - 213}
Abstract The article looks at how the collapse of the tsarist regime in Russia and the civil war which followed created the conditions wherein a class of violent paramilitary entrepreneurs, usually veterans of the Great War, were able to operate almost entirely without restraint. The author terms this phenomenon ‘warlordism’, and shows how the rise and eventual fall of warlords was connected to the absence and restoration of state control during 1917–23. The article calls for an interpretation… Expand
Two post-war paths: popular violence in the Bohemian lands and in Austria in the aftermath of World War I
The study explores the phenomenon of popular violence in the first months and years after the end of World War I on the basis of a comparison between the Bohemian lands, forming the central part ofExpand
Norms of war and the Austro-Hungarian encounter with Serbia, 1914–1918
This essay first explores European assumptions regarding occupation and war in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. These assumptions found their way into international law, but areExpand
The Great War and the Origins of Humanitarianism, 1918–1924
Introduction: human disasters: humanitarian rights and the transnational turn in the wake of the First World War 1. 'Rights, not charity': Rene Cassin and war victims 2. Justice and peace: AlbertExpand
Ex-Servicemen and Crime in Interwar Scotland
A great deal has been written on Scotland and the First World War, yet there has been no study on criminality amongst ex-servicemen after the war. This thesis considers both the ‘societal’ effect theExpand
The USSR as a multinational state from the Revolution to the death of Stalin: Western scholarship since 1991
This review article examines predominantly English-language research since 1991 on the history of the USSR as a multinational state from 1917 to the end of the Stalin era. Influenced by the risingExpand
‘Go with the hare’s ticket’ mobility and territorial policies in Ober Ost (1915–1918)
This paper argues that German occupation, through its military state of Ober Ost, fundamentally transformed Lithuania and Courland in 1915–1918. The German occupiers were determined to solve theExpand
The Local Boundaries of the Nation: Borderland Guard Activists in Polish-Occupied Volhynia, 1919–1920
This article traces how Polish national activists in the Borderland Guard (Straż Kresowa) constructed the local boundaries of the nation in the multiethnic borderland of Polish-occupied Volhynia. InExpand
Exploiting Victory, Sinking into Defeat: Uniformed Violence in the Creation of the New Order in Czechoslovakia and Austria, 1918–1922*
On June 26, 1920, a regional meeting of the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party in the Moravian city of Olomouc (Olmütz) was taking place. About one thousand members of the local party organizationExpand
Riempire le «pagine bianche». Nuovi interrogativi e nuove risposte sulla rivoluzione russa
How has scholarly understanding of Russian Revolution and of revolution in general changed over the last three decades? How the new source-material which became available since the fall of the SovietExpand


‘Like Worms in the Entrails of a Natural Man’: A Conceptual Analysis of Warlords
Warlords are increasingly significant actors in domestic and international politics. Yet, our understanding of them is often one-sided – based on either the ‘greed’ or ‘grievance’ approach. ThisExpand
Drafting the Russian Nation: Military Conscription, Total War, and Mass Politics, 1905-1925
How did Russia develop a modern national identity, and what role did the military play? Sanborn examines tsarist and Soviet armies of the early twentieth century to show how military conscriptionExpand
Towards a More Comprehensive Analysis of Warlord Politics: Constitutive Agency, Patron–Client Networks and Robust Action
Abstract This article serves as a critique of a recent American foreign policy formulation proposing to eradicate ‘warlordism’ and asserting that democratic institutions can be directly created outExpand
“A Belgium of Our Own”: The Sack of Russian Kalisz, August 1914
The Geneva Convention of 1864 and the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 defined international standards for the just conduct of war and the proper treatment of civilians. From the first days ofExpand
Nationalizing a Borderland: War, Ethnicity, and Anti-Jewish Violence in East Galicia, 1914-1920
This study enriches understanding of ethnic conflict by examining the factors in the Austro-Hungarian province of Galicia between 1914 and 1920 that led to the rise of xenophobic nationalism and toExpand
Warlordism à la russe: Baron von Ungern‐Sternberg's anti‐Bolshevik crusade, 1917–21
This article explores the life and career of Baron R.F. von Ungern‐Sternberg (1885–1921), a murky villain of the White Armies in the Russian Civil War. Scion of an old Baltic German family,Expand
A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution: 1891-1924
The Russian Revolution seized a backward, violent, peasant country and turned it into the world's first 'worker's state'. The cost in blood and misery is now known, but no fully modern narrative ofExpand
The End of the Russian Imperial Army: The Old Army and the Soldiers' Revolt (March-April, 1917)
Allan Wildman presents the first detailed study of the Army's collapse under the strains of war and of the front soldiers' efforts to participate in the Revolution.Originally published in 1980.TheExpand
Russia's garibaldi: The revolutionary life of Mikhail Artemevich Muraviev
Colonel Muraviev helped stage the October Revolution and commanded the forces which scattered Kerenskii's bid to oust Lenin; yet in July 1918 Muraviev came within an ace of deposing Lenin by stagingExpand
War in a European Borderland: Occupations and Occupation Plans in Galicia and Ukraine, 1914-1918
Preface and AcknowledgmentsNote on TransliterationIntroduction1. Outbreak of War and the Transformation of Austrian Galicia2. Russian War Aims and Wartime Propaganda3. The Ukrainian Adventure of theExpand