The Genesis and Collapse of Third Millennium North Mesopotamian Civilization

  title={The Genesis and Collapse of Third Millennium North Mesopotamian Civilization},
  author={Harvey Weiss and Marie Agn{\`e}s Courty and Wilma Wetterstrom and Françoise Guichard and Louise M. Senior and Richard Meadow and A Curnow},
  pages={1004 - 995}
Archaeological and soil-stratigraphic data define the origin, growth, and collapse of Subir, the third millennium rain-fed agriculture civilization of northern Mesopotamia on the Habur Plains of Syria. At 2200 B. C., a marked increase in aridity and wind circulation, subsequent to a volcanic eruption, induced a considerable degradation of land-use conditions. After four centuries of urban life, this abrupt climatic change evidently caused abandonment of Tell Leilan, regional desertion, and… 

The Scenario of Environmental Degradation in the Tell Leilan Region, Ne Syria, During the Late Third Millennium Abrupt Climate Change

This paper refines the characterization of the 2200–1900 BC abrupt climate change identified within soil proxy data retrieved on the Habur Plains (N.E. Syria). We compare a selection of soil

Chronology of Soil Evolution and Climatic Changes in the Dry Steppe Zone of the Northern Caucasus, Russia, During the 3rd Millennium BC

Chrono-sequences of paleosols buried under different mounds of the large Ipatovo Kurgan, constructed during the Bronze Age, have been studied to reconstruct climatic changes in the dry steppe zone of

Evidence for Mid-Holocene Environmental Change in the Western Khabur Drainage, Northeastern Syria

Vegetation on the semi-arid steppe of northern Syria responds quickly to fluctuations in patterns of precipitation and even small shifts may preclude subsistence agriculture. Archaeological survey in

Climate Change and History during the Holocene in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

  • A. Issar
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 1998
A wide spectrum of data obtained as a result of palynological, hydrological, geological, paleontological and archaeological investigations is enabling us to reconstruct quite comprehensively and with

Late Holocene drought responsible for the collapse of Old World civilizations is recorded in an Italian cave flowstone

A severe drought in parts of low-latitude northeastern Africa and southwestern Asia ∼4200 yr ago caused major disruption to ancient civilizations. Stable isotope, trace element, and organic

Geomorphologic Arguments for Mid- to Late Holocene Environmental Change in Central Anatolian (Pluvial) Lake Basins

In the interior of the Anatolian Peninsula several shallow swampy lakes occupy the floors of former Pleistocene basins. Traces of emerged abandoned coastlines enable recognition of several

Early State Formation in Southern Mesopotamia: Sea Levels, Shorelines, and Climate Change

ABSTRACT The evolution of the earliest complex state-level societies and cities from small sedentary communities took place in southern Mesopotamia between 8000 and 5000 cal yrs BP during the ‘Ubaid

Cycles of Civilization in Northern Mesopotamia, 4400–2000 BC

The intensification of fieldwork in northern Mesopotamia, the upper region of the Tigris-Euphrates basin, has revealed two cycles of expansion and reduction in social complexity between 4400 and 2000



The Neogene calcalkaline volcanism of Central Anatolia: geochronological data on Kayseri—Nigde area

Summary The evolution of Neogene volcanic activity in the Central Taurus is investigated; stratigraphical and radiometric age data from the Ürgüp (Kayseri) basin idicate that volcanism in the area

Tephra from the Minoan eruption of Santorini in sediments of the Black Sea

THE explosive eruption of Santorini volcano in the Aegean Sea about 3,300 years ago is of considerable archaeological and volcanological significance1–5. Here we report the discovery of tephra from

Irish tree rings, Santorini and volcanic dust veils

There has recently been renewed interest in the dating of the violent eruption of the Aegean island of Santorini in the second millennium BC, both by its possible effects on tree-ring growth in the

The discovery of Santorini Minoan tephra in western Turkey

Dispersal of volcanic ash from the violent Bronze Age (Minoan) eruption of the Santorini volcano in the southern Aegean has been the subject of much research1–6. A sediment core taken from a small

Climatically Effective Volcanism

  • L. Scuderi
  • Environmental Science
    Quaternary Research
  • 1992

Frost rings in trees as records of major volcanic eruptions

New data about climatically-effective volcanic eruptions during the past several thousand years may be contained in frost-damage zones in the annual rings of trees. There is good agreement in the

Irregular glacial interstadials recorded in a new Greenland ice core

THE Greenland ice sheet offers the most favourable conditions in the Northern Hemisphere for obtaining high-resolution continuous time series of climate-related parameters. Profiles of 18O/<16O ratio

Volcanic shards from Santorini (Upper Minoan ash) in the Nile Delta, Egypt

One of the largest volcanic outbursts recorded in early human history is the cataclysmic eruption of Santorini (Thera) which occurred about 35 centuries ago in the southern Aegean Sea. This explosive