The Gendering of Language: A Comparison of Gender Equality in Countries with Gendered, Natural Gender, and Genderless Languages

  title={The Gendering of Language: A Comparison of Gender Equality in Countries with Gendered, Natural Gender, and Genderless Languages},
  author={Jennifer L. Prewitt-Freilino and T Andrew Caswell and Emmi K. Laakso},
  journal={Sex Roles},
Feminists have long argued that sexist language can have real world consequences for gender relations and the relative status of men and women, and recent research suggests that grammatical gender can shape how people interpret the world around them along gender lines (Boroditsky 2009). Although others have theorized about the connection between grammatical gender in language and societal gender equality (Stahlberg et al. 2007), the current work tests this link empirically by examining… 

The Assessment of Gender Pronouns in Relation to Gender Stereotypes and Sexism

All languages distinguish between genders to a varying degree. Gender stereotypes in language are often gender-specific, where agentic words are considered as male and communal words are considered

How Fair is Gender-Fair Language? Insights from Gender Ratio Estimations in French

Heated societal debates in various countries concern the use of gender-fair language, meant to replace the generic use of grammatically masculine forms. Advocates and opponents of gender-fair

How language shapes prejudice against women: An examination across 45 world languages.

This research uses text data from Wikipedia and the Common Crawl project to find that gender prejudice occurs more in gendered rather than genderless languages and examines whether genderedness of language influences the stereotypic dimensions of warmth and competence utilizing the same NLP method.

Language Influences Public Attitudes toward Gender Equality

Does the way we speak affect what we think about gender equality? Languages vary by how much they require speakers to attend to gender. Genderless tongues (e.g., Estonian) do not oblige speakers to

Is Language Intrinsically ‘Fascist’? The Relationship between Gender Across Languages and Ostracism

The present work aims to answer the question of whether and under what circumstances the language can be considered as intrinsically ‘fascist’ (Barthes 1978), in that it compels us to speak in a

Gender Prejudices in Ekegusii Language: A Case of Proverbs/Wise Sayings

  • E. Mose
  • Linguistics
    East African Journal of Arts and Social Sciences
  • 2022
The advent of the twentieth and the twenty first century has seen languages embrace gender neutrality consciously and these changes in languages have contributed to gender equality. In this regard,

Gender-Fair Language in the Context of Recruiting and Evaluating Leaders

In many languages, masculine forms are still used as generics to address both women and men, although a variety of gender-fair forms (e.g., feminine-masculine word pairs) are available. The following

Grammatical gender as a challenge for language policy: The (im)possibility of non-heteronormative language use in German versus English

The present paper aims to reinvigorate discussions of language policy within language, gender and sexuality studies. It provides initial considerations of a poststructuralist, non-heteronormative

Gender-Fair Language in Job Advertisements

The present study investigates whether and how the use of gender-fair language is related to linguistic, cultural, and socioeconomic differences between countries with grammatical gender languages.

The Problem of Teaching of English Pronominal Pronouns in Genderless Society as Applied Linguistic Domain

The paper demonstrates one of the most recent problems in research of grammatical and natural genders in language. The targets of the article are to research gender representations in English from



¿Qué? Quoi? Do Languages with Grammatical Gender Promote Sexist Attitudes?

Languages such as French and Spanish assign a gendered article to nouns. Three experiments examined whether reading a language with grammatical gender would increase sexist attitudes. Suburban, New

The semantics of grammatical gender: A cross-cultural study

  • T. Konishi
  • Linguistics
    Journal of psycholinguistic research
  • 1993
Although most present-day scholars claim that grammatical gender has no meaning correlates, anecdotal evidence dating back to the Greeks suggests that grammatical gender carries connotative meanings

Can societal language amendments change gender representation? The case of Norway.

This study investigates the influence of stereotypical information and the grammatical masculine on the representation of gender in Norwegian by applying a sentence evaluation paradigm. In this study

The Unhappy Marriage of Religion and Politics: problems and pitfalls for gender equality

It is shown how ‘private’ issues, related to the family, sexuality and reproduction, have become sites of intense public contestation between conservative religious actors wishing to regulate them based on some transcendent moral principle, and feminist and other human rights advocates basing their claims on pluralist and time- and context-specific solutions.

Sex-role related effects of sex bias in language

Despite recent efforts to eliminate sexist language from journal and other publications, controversy persists over whether sexist language contributes to the perpetuation of sex bias. Seventy-two

Women as Men and People: Effects of Gender-Marked Language

This study examined the implications of gender-marked language. It was hypothesized that man-suffix occupation titles (e.g., chairman) would lead perceivers to interpret a social target's personality

A New Look at Gender Inequality in Chinese: A Study of Chinese Speakers’ Perception of Gender-Based Characters

It has been claimed that Chinese characters containing a woman radical (e.g., 姦jian1 ‘adultery’) tend to reflect negatively on women. We investigated this claim by asking Taiwan college students (24

Turkish. The communication of gender in Turkish

1.Introduction 2. Gender in the Turkish language system 3. Covert gender – the semantics of terms without overt gender distinctions 3.1 Covert gender 3.2 Covert gender in context 3.3

Differential Sensitivity to the Gender of a Person by English and Chinese Speakers

The question was examined with respect to the biological gender marker in English and the lack of it and the findings support the view that language can have an effect on information processing in human cognition.