The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey: Dynamical Mass of the Exoplanet β Pictoris b from Combined Direct Imaging and Astrometry

  title={The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey: Dynamical Mass of the Exoplanet $\beta$ Pictoris b from Combined Direct Imaging and Astrometry},
  author={Eric L. Nielsen and Robert J. de Rosa and Jason J. Wang and Johannes Sahlmann and Paul Kalas and Gaspard Duch{\^e}ne and Julien Rameau and Mark. S. Marley and Didier Saumon and Bruce A. Macintosh and Maxwell A. Millar-Blanchaer and Meiji M. Nguyen and S. Mark Ammons and Vanessa P. Bailey and Travis S. Barman and Joanna Bulger and Jeffrey K. Chilcote and Tara H. Cotten and Ren{\'e} Doyon and Thomas M. Esposito and Michael P. Fitzgerald and Katherine B. Follette and Benjamin L. Gerard and Stephen J. Goodsell and James R. Graham and Alexandra Z. Greenbaum and Pascale Hibon and Li-Wei Hung and Patrick Ingraham and Quinn M. Konopacky and James E. Larkin and J'erome Maire and Franck Marchis and Christian Marois and Stanimir A. Metchev and Rebecca Oppenheimer and David Palmer and Jennifer L. Patience and Marshall D. Perrin and Lisa Ann Poyneer and Laurent Pueyo and Abhijith Rajan and Fredrik T. Rantakyr{\"o} and Jean-Baptiste Ruffio and Dmitry Savransky and Adam C. Schneider and Anand Sivaramakrishnan and Inseok Song and R{\'e}mi Soummer and Sandrine J. Thomas and J. Kent Wallace and Kimberly Ward-Duong and Sloane J. Wiktorowicz and Schuyler G. Wolff},
  journal={The Astronomical Journal},
We present new observations of the planet β Pictoris b from 2018 with the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), the first GPI observations following conjunction. Based on these new measurements, we perform a joint orbit fit to the available relative astrometry from ground-based imaging, the Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data (IAD), and the Gaia DR2 position, and demonstrate how to incorporate the IAD into direct imaging orbit fits. We find a mass consistent with predictions of hot-start evolutionary… 

Constraining the Orbit and Mass of epsilon Eridani b with Radial Velocities, Hipparcos IAD-Gaia DR2 Astrometry, and Multiepoch Vortex Coronagraphy Upper Limits

ϵ Eridani is a young planetary system hosting a complex multibelt debris disk and a confirmed Jupiter-like planet orbiting at 3.48 au from its host star. Its age and architecture are thus reminiscent

Unveiling the β Pictoris system, coupling high contrast imaging, interferometric, and radial velocity data

Context. The nearby and young β Pictoris system hosts a well resolved disk, a directly imaged massive giant planet orbiting at ≃9 au, as well as an inner planet orbiting at ≃2.7 au, which was

Dynamical Mass of the Exoplanet Host Star HR 8799

HR 8799 is a young A5/F0 star hosting four directly imaged giant planets at wide separations (∼16–78 au), which are undergoing orbital motion and have been continuously monitored with adaptive optics

Precise Masses and Orbits for Nine Radial-velocity Exoplanets

Radial-velocity (RV) surveys have discovered hundreds of exoplanetary systems but suffer from a fundamental degeneracy between planet mass M p and orbital inclination i. In this paper, we resolve

The β Pictoris b Hill sphere transit campaign

Aims. Photometric monitoring of β Pic in 1981 showed anomalous fluctuations of up to 4% over several days, consistent with foreground material transiting the stellar disk. The subsequent discovery of

True Masses of the Long-period Companions to HD 92987 and HD 221420 from Hipparcos–Gaia Astrometry

The extensive time span of modern radial velocity surveys has made the discovery of long-period substellar companions more common in recent years; however, measuring the true masses of these objects

Constraints on the nearby exoplanet ϵ Indi Ab from deep near- and mid-infrared imaging limits

The past decade has seen increasing efforts in detecting and characterising exoplanets using high-contrast imaging in the near- and mid-infrared, which is the optimal wavelength domain for studying

Direct confirmation of the radial-velocity planetβPictoris c

Context.Methods used to detect giant exoplanets can be broadly divided into two categories: indirect and direct. Indirect methods are more sensitive to planets with a small orbital period, whereas

Precise Dynamical Masses and Orbital Fits for β Pic b and β Pic c

We present a comprehensive orbital analysis to the exoplanets β Pictoris b and c that resolves previously reported tensions between the dynamical and evolutionary mass constraints on β Pic b. We use

Individual dynamical masses of DENIS J063001.4−184014AB reveal a likely young brown dwarf triple

The binary nature of the M8.5 dwarf DENIS J063001.4$-$184014AB (DE0630$-$18) was discovered with astrometric monitoring from the ground, which determined the unresolved photocentric orbit and the




We present new astrometry for the young (12–21 Myr) exoplanet β Pictoris b taken with the Gemini/NICI and Magellan/MagAO instruments between 2009 and 2012. The high dynamic range of our observations


We present new Gemini Planet Imager observations of the young exoplanet 51 Eridani b that provide further evidence that the companion is physically associated with 51 Eridani. Combining this new

Post-conjunction detection of β Pictoris b with VLT/SPHERE

Context. With an orbital distance comparable to that of Saturn in the solar system, β Pictoris b is the closest (semi-major axis ≃9 au) exoplanet that has been imaged to orbit a star. Thus it offers

Hint of curvature in the orbital motion of the exoplanet 51 Eridani b using 3 yr of VLT/SPHERE monitoring

Context. The 51 Eridani system harbors a complex architecture with its primary star forming a hierarchical system with the binary GJ 3305AB at a projected separation of 2000 au, a giant planet

The mass of planet GJ 676A b from ground-based astrometry - A planetary system with two mature gas giants suitable for direct imaging

The star GJ 676A is an M0 dwarf hosting both gas-giant and super-Earth-type planets that were discovered with radial-velocity measurements. Using FORS2/VLT, we obtained position measurements of the

Discovery and spectroscopy of the young jovian planet 51 Eri b with the Gemini Planet Imager

Using the Gemini Planet Imager, a Jupiter-like planet is discovered orbiting the ~20-million-year-old star 51 Eridani at a projected separation of 13 astronomical units and has a methane signature and is probably the smallest exoplanet that has been directly imaged.

Evidence for an additional planet in the β Pictoris system

With its imaged debris disk of dust, its evaporating exocomets, and an imaged giant planet, the young (~23 Myr) β Pictoris system is a unique proxy for detailed studies of planet formation processes

The mass of the young planet Beta Pictoris b through the astrometric motion of its host star

The young massive Jupiters discovered with high-contrast imaging1–4 provide a unique opportunity to study the formation and early evolution of gas giant planets. A key question is to what extent

A probable giant planet imaged in the beta Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L'-band imaging

Context: Since the discovery of its dusty disk in 1984, β Pictoris has become the prototype of young early-type planetary systems, and there are now various indications that a massive Jovian planet


We present H-band observations of β Pic with the Gemini Planet Imager’s (GPI’s) polarimetry mode that reveal the debris disk between ∼0.″3 (6 AU) and ∼1.″7 (33 AU), while simultaneously detecting β