The Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer for the Huygens Probe

  title={The Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer for the Huygens Probe},
  author={Hasso Bernhard Otto Niemann and Sushil Atreya and Siegfried J. Bauer and Klaus Biemann and Bruce Block and George R. Carignan and Thomas M. Donahue and Robert L. Frost and Daniel Gautier and J. A. Haberman and Dan N. Harpold and Donald M. Hunten and Gary M. Israel and Jonathan I. Lunine and Konrad Mauersberger and Tobias C. Owen and François Raulin and J. E. Richards and Stephen Way},
  journal={Space Science Reviews},
The Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) on the Huygens Probe will measure the chemical composition of Titan's atmosphere from 170 km altitude (∼1 hPa) to the surface (∼1500 hPa) and determine the isotope ratios of the major gaseous constituents. The GCMS will also analyze gas samples from the Aerosol Collector Pyrolyser (ACP) and may be able to investigate the composition (including isotope ratios) of several candidate surface materials.The GCMS is a quadrupole mass filter with a… 
The Mars analytical chemistry experiment
Future missions to Mars will offer the opportunity to continue the search for organic molecules accessible from the surface, and to better quantify the cycling of volatile elements through
Performances under representative pressure and temperature conditions of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry space experiment to investigate Titan's atmospheric composition.
An analytical database is created that can be used as a reference to treat the chromatograms obtained in situ, and help to identify chromatographically the analyzed species, complementary to mass spectrometry.
The abundances of constituents of Titan's atmosphere from the GCMS instrument on the Huygens probe
Direct atmospheric measurements from the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS), including altitude profiles of the constituents, isotopic ratios and trace species (including organic compounds), were reported, confirming the primary constituents were confirmed to be nitrogen and methane.
Development of an evolved gas-time-of-flight mass spectrometer for the Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR) instrument
Low power, robust technologies are appealing for in situ planetary science throughout the Solar System. The VAPoR (Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith) instrument is under development toward
Mass Spectrometry in Solar System Exploration
A mass spectrometer system designed to measure chemical composition of gaseous, liquid, or solid samples in planetary environments must include the following components: a sampling system, an
Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) laser desorption/ionization source design and performance characterization.
Advanced analytical capabilities like Stored Waveform Inverse Fourier Transform (SWIFT) for selected ion ejection and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) are realized in LDI-MS mode, and enable the isolation and enhancement of specific mass ranges and structural analysis, respectively.
Composition of Titan's lower atmosphere and simple surface volatiles as measured by the Cassini‐Huygens probe gas chromatograph mass spectrometer experiment
[1] The Cassini-Huygens probe gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) determined the composition of the Titan atmosphere from ∼140 km altitude to the surface. After landing, it returned
Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for Ice Giant Atmospheres Exploration
To date, a variety of different types of mass spectrometers have been utilized on missions to study the composition of atmospheres of solar system bodies, including Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Titan, the
The composition of Titan’s lower atmosphere and simple surface volatiles as measured by the Cassini-Huygens probe
The Cassini-Huygens Probe Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) determined the composition of the Titan atmosphere from ~140km altitude to the surface. After landing, it returned composition
Reevaluated martian atmospheric mixing ratios from the mass spectrometer on the Curiosity rover
Abstract The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is a miniature geochemical laboratory designed to analyze martian atmospheric gases as


Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer experiment
The Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer (GPMS) is a Probe instrument designed to measure the chemical and isotopic composition including vertical variations of the constituents in the atmosphere of
Huygens Probe Aerosol Collector Pyrolyser Experiment
ACP's main objective is the chemical analysis of the aerosols in Titan's atmosphere. For this purpose, it will sample the aerosols during descent and prepare the collected matter (by evaporation,
The Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer: Composition of Jupiter's Atmosphere
The measured ratio of deuterium to hydrogen (D/H) indicates that this ratio is greater in solar-system hydrogen than in local interstellar hydrogen, and the 3He/4He ratio provides a new value for protosolar (solar nebula) helium isotopes.
Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry: A Practical Guide
This second edition of "Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry: A Practical Guide" follows the highly successful first edition by F.G. Kitson, B.S. Larsen, and C.N. McEwen (1996), which was
Development and Characterization of Gas Chromatographic Columns for the Analysis of Prebiological Molecules in Titan's Atmosphere
Parametric studies were conducted to design, develop, and integrate three gas chromatographic columns with a miniaturized mass spectrometer to be part of the Cassini−Huygens mission for studying the
Gas chromatography of Titan's atmosphere VI. Analysis of low-molecular-mass hydrocarbons and nitriles with BPX5 capillary columns
Wall-coated open-tubular capillary columns (0.15 mm I.D., 12 and 25 m long with a 0.25-μm film thickness and 12 m long with a 2-μm film thickness with a chemically bonded stationary phase (5%
Gaseous abundances and methane supersaturation in Titan's troposphere
Various properties of Titan's troposphere are inferred from an analysis of Voyager 1 infrared spectrometer (IRIS) data between 200 and 600 cm−1. Two homogeneous spectral averages acquired at widely
Gas chromatography of Titan's atmosphere. IV: Analysis of permanent gases in the presence of hydrocarbons and nitriles with a Molsieve PLOT capillary column
A Molsieve 5A wide-bore capillary column was systematically studied for the separation of CO and N2 in the presence of other permanent gases, including noble gases, light hydrocarbons and nitriles,
The composition and origin of Titan's atmosphere
Abstract The discovery that Titan had an atmosphere was made by the identification of methane in the satellite's spectrum in 1944. But the abundance of this gas and the identification of other major
Titan's thermal emission spectrum: Reanalysis of the Voyager infrared measurements.
We have modeled the far-infrared spectrum of Titan between 200 and 600 cm-1, including the fine structure of the H2-N2 and H2-CH4 dimers around 355 and 585 cm-1 respectively. A selection of 373