The Galilean satellites.

@article{Showman1999TheGS,
  title={The Galilean satellites.},
  author={A. P. Showman and Renu Malhotra},
  journal={Science},
  year={1999},
  volume={286 5437},
  pages={
          77-84
        }
}
NASA's Galileo mission to Jupiter and improved Earth-based observing capabilities have allowed major advances in our understanding of Jupiter's moons Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto over the past few years. Particularly exciting findings include the evidence for internal liquid water oceans in Callisto and Europa, detection of a strong intrinsic magnetic field within Ganymede, discovery of high-temperature silicate volcanism on Io, discovery of tenuous oxygen atmospheres at Europa and… Expand
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THE Galileo spacecraft has now passed close to Jupiter's largest moon—Ganymede—on two occasions, the first at an altitude of 838 km, and the second at an altitude of just 264 km. Here we report theExpand
Galileo's First Images of Jupiter and the Galilean Satellites
The first images of Jupiter, Io, Europa, and Ganymede from the Galileo spacecraft reveal new information about Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and the surfaces of the Galilean satellites. FeaturesExpand
IO ON THE EVE OF THE GALILEO MISSION
▪ Abstract Io, innermost of Jupiter's large moons, is one of the most unusual objects in the Solar System. Tidal heating of the interior produces a global heat flux 40 times the terrestrial value,Expand
Detection of an oxygen atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Europa
TLDR
The detection of atomic oxygen emission from Europa is reported, which is interpreted as being produced by the simultaneous dissociation and excitation of atmospheric O2 by electrons from Jupiter's magnetosphere. Expand
Evidence for sulphur implantation in Europa's UV absorption band
The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spacecraft has obtained observations of the galilean satellites over the past 2 years which fortuitously span the periods of the Voyager encounters withExpand
Evidence for a magnetosphere at Ganymede from plasma-wave observations by the Galileo spacecraft
ON 27 June 1996 the Galileo spacecraft1,2 made the first of four planned close fly-bys of Ganymede, Jupiter's largest moon. Here we report measurements of plasma waves and radio emissions, over theExpand
High-temperature silicate volcanism on Jupiter's moon Io.
Infrared wavelength observations of Io by the Galileo spacecraft show that at least 12 different vents are erupting lavas that are probably hotter than the highest temperature basaltic eruptions onExpand
A tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Callisto.
TLDR
An off-limb scan of Callisto was conducted by the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer to search for a carbon dioxide atmosphere, finding either the atmosphere is transient and was formed recently or some process is currently supplying carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Expand
A Magnetic Signature at Io: Initial Report from the Galileo Magnetometer
TLDR
During the inbound pass of the Galileo spacecraft, the magnetometer acquired 1 minute averaged measurements of the magnetic field along the trajectory as the spacecraft flew by Io, and it seems plausible that Io, like Earth and Mercury, is a magnetized solid planet. Expand
The ionosphere of Europa from Galileo radio occultations.
TLDR
The Galileo spacecraft performed six radio occultation observations of Jupiter's Galilean satellite Europa during its tour of the jovian system, revealing the presence of a tenuous ionosphere on Europa. Expand
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