The Galilean satellites.

  title={The Galilean satellites.},
  author={A. P. Showman and Renu Malhotra},
  volume={286 5437},
NASA's Galileo mission to Jupiter and improved Earth-based observing capabilities have allowed major advances in our understanding of Jupiter's moons Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto over the past few years. Particularly exciting findings include the evidence for internal liquid water oceans in Callisto and Europa, detection of a strong intrinsic magnetic field within Ganymede, discovery of high-temperature silicate volcanism on Io, discovery of tenuous oxygen atmospheres at Europa and… 
Planetary and lunar magnetism
In situ studies by spacecraft of the magnetic fields of Earth and all the planets except for Pluto began with the USSR’s launch of Sputnik 3 in 1958. The study of the geomagnetic field by the USA
The Galilean Moons and the Nature of their Magnetic Fields
The Galileo spacecraft’s magnetometer data allowed for an understanding of the Galilean satellites’ internal magnetic fields. My objective was to learn the nature of these fields and see if they are
Jupiter and the Outer Planets Mars Venus Jupiter and the Outer Planets
The planets and satellites in the outer solar system exhibit a diverse range of atmospheres. The giant planets F Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune F are fluid objects whose atmospheres have
The lithosphere and surface of Io
Io, the innermost of the four large satellites discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610, has a mean radius (1821.6 km) and bulk density (3.53 g cm) comparable to the Moon (Anderson et al. 2001).
Tidally Induced Magmatic Pulses on the Oceanic Floor of Jupiter's Moon Europa
The habitability of Europa's subsurface ocean is conditioned by heat released from the deep interior and by intensity of magmatic activity. Here, we investigate the melting of the silicate mantle
Implications from Galileo Observations on the Interior Structure and Chemistry of the Galilean Satellites
Abstract Data from the recent gravity measurements by the Galileo mission are used to construct wide ranges of interior structure and composition models for the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. These
Energetic Ion and Electron Irradiation of the Icy Galilean Satellites
Abstract Galileo Orbiter measurements of energetic ions (20 keV to 100 MeV) and electrons (20–700 keV) in Jupiter's magnetosphere are used, in conjunction with the JPL electron model ( 6 years,
Dielectric properties of Jovian satellite ice analogs for subsurface radar exploration: A review
The first European mission dedicated to the exploration of Jupiter and its icy moons (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer—JUICE) will be launched in 2022 and will reach its final destination in 2030. The main
The Q Values of the Galilean Satellites and their Tidal Contributions to the Deceleration of Jupiter's Rotation
The relationship between the k2/Q of the Galilean satellites and the k2J/QJ of Jupiter is derived from energy and momentum considerations. Calcula- tions suggest that the Galilean satellites can be


Discovery of Ganymede's magnetic field by the Galileo spacecraft
THE Galileo spacecraft has now passed close to Jupiter's largest moon—Ganymede—on two occasions, the first at an altitude of 838 km, and the second at an altitude of just 264 km. Here we report the
Galileo's First Images of Jupiter and the Galilean Satellites
The first images of Jupiter, Io, Europa, and Ganymede from the Galileo spacecraft reveal new information about Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and the surfaces of the Galilean satellites. Features
▪ Abstract Io, innermost of Jupiter's large moons, is one of the most unusual objects in the Solar System. Tidal heating of the interior produces a global heat flux 40 times the terrestrial value,
Detection of an oxygen atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Europa
The detection of atomic oxygen emission from Europa is reported, which is interpreted as being produced by the simultaneous dissociation and excitation of atmospheric O2 by electrons from Jupiter's magnetosphere.
Evidence for sulphur implantation in Europa's UV absorption band
The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spacecraft has obtained observations of the galilean satellites over the past 2 years which fortuitously span the periods of the Voyager encounters with
Evidence for a magnetosphere at Ganymede from plasma-wave observations by the Galileo spacecraft
ON 27 June 1996 the Galileo spacecraft1,2 made the first of four planned close fly-bys of Ganymede, Jupiter's largest moon. Here we report measurements of plasma waves and radio emissions, over the
High-temperature silicate volcanism on Jupiter's moon Io.
Infrared wavelength observations of Io by the Galileo spacecraft show that at least 12 different vents are erupting lavas that are probably hotter than the highest temperature basaltic eruptions on
A tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Callisto.
  • R. Carlson
  • Physics, Environmental Science
  • 1999
An off-limb scan of Callisto was conducted by the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer to search for a carbon dioxide atmosphere, finding either the atmosphere is transient and was formed recently or some process is currently supplying carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
A Magnetic Signature at Io: Initial Report from the Galileo Magnetometer
During the inbound pass of the Galileo spacecraft, the magnetometer acquired 1 minute averaged measurements of the magnetic field along the trajectory as the spacecraft flew by Io, and it seems plausible that Io, like Earth and Mercury, is a magnetized solid planet.
The ionosphere of Europa from Galileo radio occultations.
The Galileo spacecraft performed six radio occultation observations of Jupiter's Galilean satellite Europa during its tour of the jovian system, revealing the presence of a tenuous ionosphere on Europa.