The GDNF family ligands and receptors — implications for neural development

@article{Baloh2000TheGF,
  title={The GDNF family ligands and receptors — implications for neural development},
  author={Robert H. Baloh and Hideki Enomoto and Eugene M. Johnson and Jeffrey D. Milbrandt},
  journal={Current Opinion in Neurobiology},
  year={2000},
  volume={10},
  pages={103-110}
}

The GDNF family: Signalling, biological functions and therapeutic value

Members of the nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) families — comprising neurotrophins and GDNF-family ligands (GFLs), respectively — are crucial for the

Regulation of neural development by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family ligands

  • H. Enomoto
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Anatomical science international
  • 2005
TLDR
The deciphering of GDNF family ligand signaling in neural cells promises to provide vital new insights into the development and pathology of the nervous system.

GDNF family signalling in exocrine tissues: distinct roles for GDNF and neurturin in parasympathetic neuron development.

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and related neurotrophic factors neurturin (NRTN), artemin (ARTN) and persephin (PSPN) form a subgroup in the transforming growth factor-β

Control of neuronal survival, migration and outgrowth by GDNF and its receptors

TLDR
This thesis demonstrated new insights into the control of neuronal survival, migration, and outgrowth by GDNF and its receptors and justified the existence of a novel transmembrane receptor for the GDNF/GFR!1 complex and uncovered an unexpected interplay between GD NF/G FR!1 and HGF/Met signaling in the early diversification of GABAergic MGE interneuron subtypes.

Is GAS1 a co-receptor for the GDNF family of ligands?

Gas1 Is Related to the Glial Cell-derived Neurotrophic Factor Family Receptors α and Regulates Ret Signaling*

TLDR
It is demonstrated that the Gas1 protein shows high structural similarity to the glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptors α, which mediate GDNF responses through the receptor tyrosine kinase Ret, and binds Ret in a ligand-independent manner and sequesters Ret in lipid rafts.

Extracellular Crosstalk When GDNF Meets N-CAM

Evolution of the GDNF Family Ligands and Receptors

TLDR
The presence of RET- and GFR-like genes in insects suggests that a ProtoGFR and a ProtoRET arose early in the evolution of bilaterian animals, but when the ProtoGFL diverged from existing transforming growth factor (TGFβ)-like proteins remains unclear.
...

References

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Characterization of a multicomponent receptor for GDNF

TLDR
It is demonstrated that physiological responses to GDNF require the presence of a novel glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked protein (designated GDNFR-α) that is expressed on GDNF-responsive cells and binds GDNF with a high affinity, which supports the hypothesis that GDNF uses a multi-subunit receptor system in which GDN FR-α and Ret function as the ligand-binding and signalling components.

Expression of Neurturin, GDNF, and GDNF Family-Receptor mRNA in the Developing and Mature Mouse

TLDR
In the mature animal, receptor expression was more limited than in the embryo, and the possibility that the GDNF factors function in inductive processes during embryonic development and with the recently discovered role of NRTN as a necessary trophic factor for the development of some parasympathetic neurons is consistent.

Functional receptor for GDNF encoded by the c-ret proto-oncogene

TLDR
It is shown that GDNF binds to, and induces tyrosine phosphorylation of, the product of the c-ret proto-oncogene, an orphan receptor tyrosin kinase, in a GDNF responsive motor-neuron cell line, which encodes a functional receptor for GDNF that may mediate its neurotrophic effects on motor and dopaminergic neurons.

A rapid and dynamic regulation of GDNF-family ligands and receptors correlate with the developmental dependency of cutaneous sensory innervation.

TLDR
The results suggests that functionally specified nerve endings depend on different GDNF family members and that in contrast to neurotrophins, this family of neurotrophic factors may be acting at local sites of terminal Schwann cell-axon growth cone interactions and that they collaborate with neurotrophin by supporting the same populations of neurons but at different times in development.

GDNF: a glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor for midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

TLDR
In embryonic midbrain cultures, recombinant human GDNF promoted the survival and morphological differentiation of dopaminergic neurons and increased their high-affinity dopamine uptake and did not increase total neuron or astrocyte numbers or transmitter uptake.

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF): a drug candidate for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease

TLDR
The powerful neuroprotective and neurorestorative properties of GDNF seen in preclinical studies suggest that trophic factors may play an important role in treating Parkinson’s disease.

GDNF signalling through the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase

TLDR
It is shown that glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)7, a distant member of the transforming growth factor(TGF)-β superfamily, signals through the Ret RTK, and that GDNF, in addition to its potential role in the differentiation and survival of central nervous system neurons8–12, has profound effects on kidney organogenesis and the development of the peripheral nervous system.
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