The Future of Seawater Desalination: Energy, Technology, and the Environment

  title={The Future of Seawater Desalination: Energy, Technology, and the Environment},
  author={Menachem Elimelech and William A. Phillip},
  pages={712 - 717}
In recent years, numerous large-scale seawater desalination plants have been built in water-stressed countries to augment available water resources, and construction of new desalination plants is expected to increase in the near future. Despite major advancements in desalination technologies, seawater desalination is still more energy intensive compared to conventional technologies for the treatment of fresh water. There are also concerns about the potential environmental impacts of large-scale… 
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Direct seawater desalination by ion concentration polarization.
A process for converting sea water to fresh water in which a continuous stream of sea water is divided into desalted and concentrated streams by ion concentration polarization, which significantly reduces the possibility of membrane fouling and salt accumulation, thus avoiding two problems that plague other membrane filtration methods.
Energy issues in desalination processes.
  • R. Semiat
  • Engineering
    Environmental science & technology
  • 2008
The current energy consumption of different desalination processes is reviewed and a comparison with other common energy-consuming ventures leads to some interesting conclusions.
Effect of Thermodynamic Restriction on Energy Cost Optimization of RO Membrane Water Desalination
Advances in highly permeable reverse osmosis (RO) membranes have enabled desalting operations, in which it is practically feasible for the applied pressure to approach the osmotic pressure of the
Science and technology for water purification in the coming decades
Some of the science and technology being developed to improve the disinfection and decontamination of water, as well as efforts to increase water supplies through the safe re-use of wastewater and efficient desalination of sea and brackish water are highlighted.