The Frontoparietal Fossa and Dorsotemporal Fenestra of Archosaurs and Their Significance for Interpretations of Vascular and Muscular Anatomy in Dinosaurs

  title={The Frontoparietal Fossa and Dorsotemporal Fenestra of Archosaurs and Their Significance for Interpretations of Vascular and Muscular Anatomy in Dinosaurs},
  author={Casey M. Holliday and Wm Ruger Porter and Kent A Vliet and Lawrence M. Witmer},
  journal={The Anatomical Record},
The attachments of jaw muscles are typically implicated in the evolution and shape of the dorsotemporal fenestra on the skull roof of amniotes. However, the dorsotemporal fenestrae of many archosaurian reptiles possess smooth excavations rostral and dorsal to the dorsotemporal fossa which closely neighbors the dorsotemporal fenestra and jaw muscle attachments. Previous research has typically identified this region, here termed the frontoparietal fossa, to also have attachment surfaces for jaw… 

Braincase anatomy of extant Crocodylia, with new insights into the development and evolution of the neurocranium in crocodylomorphs

It is hypothesize that profound rearrangements in the individual development of the braincases of basal crocodylomorphs underlie these rapid evolutionary modifications.

The braincase of Bissektipelta archibaldi — new insights into endocranial osteology, vasculature, and paleoneurobiology of ankylosaurian dinosaurs

An extremely developed sense of smell, a keen sense of hearing at lower frequencies, and the presence of physiological mechanisms for precise temperature control of neurosensory tissues at least in derived ankylosaurids are inferred.

Morphology of the temporal skull region in tetrapods: research history, functional explanations, and a new comprehensive classification scheme

  • Pascal AbelI. Werneburg
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 2021
A novel comprehensive classification scheme for the various temporal morphotypes in all Tetrapoda that is independent of phylogeny and previous terminology is introduced that may facilitate morphological comparisons in future studies.

Cranial and endocranial anatomy of a three‐dimensionally preserved teleosauroid thalattosuchian skull

The presence of osteological correlates for salt glands in a teleosauroid corroborates previous hypotheses that these glands originated in the common ancestor of Thalattosuchia, facilitating their rapid radiation into the marine realm.

An exceptional neurovascular system in abelisaurid theropod skull: New evidence from Skorpiovenator bustingorryi

CT scans made on the skull corroborates a novel feature within theropods: the nasal foramina on the external surface are linked to an internal canal that runs across the nasal bones, which would indicate a neurovascular correlate to the lateral nasal and supraorbital vessels and the trigeminal nerve.

3D skull modelling and description of a new baurusuchid (Crocodyliformes, Mesoeucrocodylia) from the Late Cretaceous (Bauru Basin) of Brazil

The present study describes a new baurusuchid species from the Bauru Basin of Brazil, based on the first tridimensional digital reconstruction of individualized skull bones for Notosuchia, and discusses its phylogenetic position within the group.

Reevaluation of the cranial osteology and phylogenetic position of the early crocodyliform Eopneumatosuchus colberti, with an emphasis on its endocranial anatomy

The external cranial morphology of E. colberti is redescribed, novel information is presented on its endocranial anatomy, and the phylogenetic position among early crocodylomorphs is evaluated, which demonstrates the endocranium of croc Codyliforms is not as conserved as previously hypothesized.

The effects of skull flattening on suchian jaw muscle evolution

3D models are used to create 3D models of extant and fossil suchians that demonstrate the evolution of the crocodylian skull, using osteological correlates to reconstruct muscle attachment sites and find that taxa with flatter skulls have less efficient muscle orientations for the production of high bite force.

Paratympanic sinuses in juvenile Alligator

The comprehensive paratympanic sinus system in posthatched alligator is described using soft tissue enhanced CT data with 3D reconstructions and the presence of the epithelial boundary and pneumatic changes in ontogeny suggests that the middle ear may function differently in developmental stages.

New frontiers in imaging, anatomy, and mechanics of crocodylian jaw muscles

A series of approaches in the preparation, imaging, and functional analysis of the jaw muscles of crocodylians are reviewed, revealing new information on the ontogeny, diversity, and function of jaw muscles and the heads of alligators and other croc Codylians.



The origin of temporal fenestrae : research letter

Temporal fenestrae formation has little to do with space needed for muscle bulging during contraction, but are rather correlated with the phylogenetic expansion of jaw adductor size and thus force production.

Evolution, Homology, and Function of the Supracranial Sinuses in Ceratopsian Dinosaurs

The development of a closed sinus in ceratopsids from an open depression was probably associated with an increase in skull size and the accompanying relatively greater loads applied to the horns (in order to maintain the structural integrity of the skull), as well as an anatomical reorganization of the ceramicatopsian skull.

New Insights Into Dinosaur Jaw Muscle Anatomy

  • C. Holliday
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Anatomical record
  • 2009
The osteological correlates and inferred soft tissue anatomy of the jaw muscles and relevant neurovasculature in the temporal region of the dinosaur head are presented to provide the anatomical foundation necessary for future analyses of skull function and evolution in an important vertebrate clade.

The Evolution of the Antorbital Cavity of Archosaurs: A Study in Soft-Tissue Reconstruction in the Fossil Record with an Analysis of the Function of Pneumaticity

Resolution of the antorbital cavity is correctly viewed as a “soft-tissue problem,” and is addressed within the context of the extant phylogenetic bracket (EPB) approach for reconstructing the unpreserved features of fossil organisms.

Archosaur adductor chamber evolution: Integration of musculoskeletal and topological criteria in jaw muscle homology

A new and robust view of jaw muscle homology is provided and the first synthesized nomenclature of sauropsid musculature is introduced using multiple lines of evidence, indicating multiple topological criteria are necessary for interpretations of soft‐tissue homology and warrant further investigation into character congruence and developmental connectivity.

The Epipterygoid of Crocodyliforms and Its Significance for the Evolution of the Orbitotemporal Region of Eusuchians

A broad survey of crocodyliform archosaurs and their outgroups was conducted to explore the evolutionary and morphological patterns of the orbitotemporal region, which is a highly apomorphic but poorly understood portion of the head, and indicates that the epipterygoid was only recently eliminated in croc Codyliform evolution.


Abstract Recent fieldwork in the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Maevarano Formation, northwest Madagascar, has yielded important new skull material of the abelisaurid theropod, Majungasaurus

The Facial Integument of Centrosaurine Ceratopsids: Morphological and Histological Correlates of Novel Skin Structures

It is concluded that social selection (a broad form of intraspecific competition) is a more appropriate explanation for the diversity of centrosaurine ceratopsian ornaments in the Late Cretaceous.

Comparative cranial myology and biomechanics of Plateosaurus and Camarasaurus and evolution of the sauropod feeding apparatus

Results demonstrate that Camarasaurus was capable of much greater bite forces than Plateosaurus, due to greater relative adductor muscle mass and shape changes to the mandible, and supports suggestions of facultative omnivory in basal sauropodomorph taxa.

Ontogeny of the Alligator Cartilago Transiliens and Its Significance for Sauropsid Jaw Muscle Evolution

The results indicate that similar tendon organs exist among potentially homologous muscle groups in birds and turtles, thus impacting inferences of jaw muscle homology and evolution in sauropsids in general.