The Fourth Wave of Democracy and Dictatorship: Noncooperative Transitions in the Postcommunist World

  title={The Fourth Wave of Democracy and Dictatorship: Noncooperative Transitions in the Postcommunist World},
  author={Michael Mcfaul},
  journal={World Politics},
  pages={212 - 244}
The transition from communism in Europe and the former Soviet Union has only sometimes produced a transition to democracy. Since the crumbling of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, most of the twenty-eight new states have abandoned communism, but only nine of these have entered the ranks of liberal democracies. The remaining majority of new postcommunist states are various shades of dictatorships or unconsolidated "transitional regimes." This article seeks to… 

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