The Fourth Wave in Deterrence Research

  title={The Fourth Wave in Deterrence Research},
  author={J. Knopf},
  journal={Contemporary Security Policy},
  pages={1 - 33}
  • J. Knopf
  • Published 2010
  • Economics
  • Contemporary Security Policy
Following the end of the Cold War and accelerating after 9/11, a new wave of research on deterrence has emerged. Building on an earlier characterization by Robert Jervis, this work is here designated the fourth wave. The fourth wave reflects efforts to grapple with the change from a relatively symmetrical situation of mutual deterrence that characterized the Cold War to the asymmetric threats that dominate the current security environment for the United States and many other states. Despite… Expand
The State of Deterrence in International Politics Today
In comparison with the Cold War era, deterrence in international politics has changed significantly, even though many of the basic components of that deterrence still exist and continue to have anExpand
Level of analysis problem in the post-cold war deterrence: The need for regional perspectives
The end of the Cold War has had profound effect on deterrence theory and practice. Contrary to the perceived belief that deterrence was a dead concept after the demise of the Cold War rivalries, itExpand
Deterring violent non-state actors: dilemmas and implications
This paper aims to address the limitations of classical deterrence theory in dealing with violent non-state actors (VNSAs).,The study uses qualitative methods.,It suggests that two measures must beExpand
Utilizing Strategic Culture as a Tool to Tailor U.S. Deterrence Policy Towards Iran
The geostrategic environment since the end of the Cold War has drastically changed the way United States (U.S.) policymakers develop strategies to combat a wide range of hostile threats facing theExpand
Introduction—The Evolution of Deterrence Strategy and Research
The concept of deterrence has dominated Western strategic thought for some seven decades. It shows no signs of easing its grip. In the face of any new security threat, such as terrorism orExpand
Learning to Deter: Deterrence Failure and Success in the Israel-Hezbollah Conflict, 2006–16
What are the sources of deterrence stability and under what conditions can weak actors deter stronger adversaries? To deter a superior adversary, the weak actor must convince it that if conflictExpand
Nuclear Deterrence in a New Age of Disruptive Technologies and Great Power Competition
An increasingly dangerous ‘second nuclear age’ is threatening the survival of humankind as geopolitical competition increases between established nuclear powers, unstable ‘rogue states’ andExpand
The Essence of Cross-Domain Deterrence
Both deterrence theory and deterrence practice are evolving to address contemporary strategic challenges. In the military domain, states progressively integrate and synchronise military operations.Expand
Deterrence theory in the cyber-century . Lessons from a state-ofthe-art literature review
Cyberattacks from a variety of perpetrators are constantly rising. To achieve restraint from attacks, deterrence theory has long been considered a valuable concept. How do criticisms of classicalExpand
“This Has Triggered a Civil War”: Russian Deterrence of Democratic Revolts
This chapter examines the use of deterrence by President Putin of the Russian Federation against potential democratic revolts. It combines insights from the literatures on democratic revolutions andExpand


Deterrence From Cold War to Long War: Lessons from Six Decades of RAND Research
Abstract : A decade after the end of the Cold War, many viewed the attacks of September 11, 2001, as confirming the end of deterrence. Despite overwhelming nuclear and conventional superiority, theExpand
Wrestling with Deterrence: Bush Administration Strategy After 9/11
After the announcement of the doctrine of preemption in 2002, many observers concluded the George W. Bush administration had abandoned the strategy of deterrence. This is a misconception. ThisExpand
Deterrence, Terrorism, and American Values
IntroductionIn the aftermath of the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, academics and policymakers were quick to dismiss the strategic role that deterrence could play inExpand
Maintaining Effective Deterrence
Abstract : While deterrence is as old as human conflict itself, it became particularly important with the advent of nuclear weapons when armed conflict between the superpowers had the potential toExpand
The Fallacies of Cold War Deterrence and a New Direction
In most Cold War-style analyses of deterrence, leaders are assumed to be rational and willing to engage in cost-benefit calculations when making policy decisions. Yet, the assumption of rationalityExpand
Can deterrence be tailored
Key Points Deterrence, the hallmark of Cold War-era security, needs to be adapted to fit the more volatile security environment of the 21st century. The Bush administration has outlined a concept forExpand
Deterring Terrorists: What Israel Has Learned
"Only when not a single breach is visible in the iron wall, only then do extreme groups lose their sway, and influence transfers to moderate groups. Only then would these moderate groups come to usExpand
The Confrontation between Iraq and the US: Implications for the Theory and Practice of Deterrence
The American confrontation with Iraq poses important questions for scholarship as well as policy, and many of these involve whether various forms of deterrence can be effective. Our theories in thisExpand
Deterrence and Counterproliferation in an Age of Weapons of Mass Destruction
Faced with America's conventional military superiority, many countries are turning to weapons of mass destruction as a means to deter U.S. intervention in their affairs. At the same time, 11Expand
Deterring Terrorism
against contemporary terrorists? Many prominent international relations scholars and analysts have argued that deterrent strategies have no signiacant role to play in countering the new terroristExpand