The Four Horsemen of Terrorism: It's Not Waves, It's Strains

  title={The Four Horsemen of Terrorism: It's Not Waves, It's Strains},
  author={Tom Parker and Nick Sitter},
  journal={Terrorism and Political Violence},
  pages={197 - 216}
David Rapoport's concept of Four Waves of terrorism, from Anarchist terrorism in the 1880s, through Nationalist and Marxist waves in the early and mid-twentieth century, to the present Religious Wave, is one of the most influential concepts in terrorism studies. However, this article argues that thinking about different types of terrorism as strains rather than waves better reflects both the empirical reality and the idea that terrorists learn from and emulate each other. Whereas the notion of… 
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