The Four Horsemen of Terrorism: It's Not Waves, It's Strains

  title={The Four Horsemen of Terrorism: It's Not Waves, It's Strains},
  author={Tom Parker and Nick Sitter},
  journal={Terrorism and Political Violence},
  pages={197 - 216}
David Rapoport's concept of Four Waves of terrorism, from Anarchist terrorism in the 1880s, through Nationalist and Marxist waves in the early and mid-twentieth century, to the present Religious Wave, is one of the most influential concepts in terrorism studies. However, this article argues that thinking about different types of terrorism as strains rather than waves better reflects both the empirical reality and the idea that terrorists learn from and emulate each other. Whereas the notion of… 
The Eco-Terrorist Wave
ABSTRACT Within Terrorism Studies, Rapoport, D. C.’s (2004. The Four Waves of Modern Terrorism. In A. Cronin, & J. Ludes (Eds.), Attacking Terrorism: Elements of a Grand Strategy (pp. 47–65).
Global Religious Terrorism, A Troubling Phenomenon
Terrorism is an ancient phenomenon, as it comes from classical Antiquity. However, its global version only started in the last decades of the 19th century, after the fall of Paris Commune and the
Reexamining the Four Waves of Modern Terrorism: A Territorial Interpretation
Abstract Territory is a persistent concern in international politics but is unevenly explored in the terrorism literature. We argue that territory has salience for terrorist actors and apply our
Class Warfare: Political Exclusion of the Poor and the Roots of Social-Revolutionary Terrorism, 1860-1950
ABSTRACT We examine the effect of class cleavages on terrorist activity by anarchist and leftist terrorist groups in 99 countries over the 1860–1950 period. We find that higher levels of political
Suicide terrorism, which has been prominent for generations by pro-violent non-state actors, is used by terrorist groups, guerrilla groups and insurgents. Particularly in the post-Cold War period,
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Constructions of terrorism emanate from a wide range of sources. Governments and international organizations create criminal laws and administrative lists defining who is a terrorist or what acts
Mathematical Models of Radicalization and Terrorism
The rapid spread of radical ideologies has led to a world-wide succession of terrorist attacks in recent years. Understanding how extremist tendencies germinate, develop, and drive individuals to
From bombing to social media: The role of returning foreign fighters in nurturing terrorism in Asian countries
  • W. Jati
  • Political Science
  • 2021
This article aims for revisiting the terrorism studies from different perspective. The terror attacks itself cannot be hundred percent zero but it just fluctuated trend. More specifically, terrorism
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ABSTRACT The terrorism discourse in the Kenyan context dates back to the colonial and post-colonial years with the country having suffered its most devastating terrorist attacks in the period since
Semantic complications in the war on terror discourse and manipulation of language by state and non-state actors
Since September 11, 2001, attacks on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon, the US along with its allies declared War on Terror, where the binary opposition of ‘Us' vs ‘Them' was firmly established and


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This study analyzes the main trends in the Italian response to terrorism for the effectiveness of specific policies and their impact on civil liberties. Four periods are highlighted. The first
Propaganda by the deed: Terrorism and anarchist theory in late nineteenth‐century Europe
Abstract This essay examines the development of anarchist theory by radical intellectuals such as Peter Kropotkin and Elisee Reclus in response to certain acts of violence in late nineteenth‐century
The lawyer terrorist and his comrades.
Horst Mahler, a young lawyer who had fled to West Berlin, was the cofounder of the Red Army Faction. While imprisoned for committing acts of terror, he and other leading terrorists directed raids and
Stalinist Terror in the Comintern: New Perspectives
The Stalinist terror unleashed on Soviet society in the 1930s claimed millions of victims. Western researchers have long disputed its origins, nature and impact. Rather less attention, however, has
Karl Heinzen and the Intellectual Origins of Modern Terror
Scholars have long recognized the importance of Karl Heinzen's Mord und Freiheit in the history of terrorist thought. Yet the translation most scholars have relied on—1881s Murder and Liberty—is
Italian Neofascism: The Strategy of Tension and the Politics of Nonreconciliation
During the Cold War Italy witnessed the existence of an anomalous version of a civil conflict, defined as a 'creeping' or a 'low-intensity' civil war. This was due both to the ideological hatred
The Battle against Anarchist Terrorism: An International History, 1878-1934
Introduction 1. The origins of anarchist terrorism 2. Conspiracies, panics, agent provocateurs, mass journalism, and globalization 3. International action against subversives: 1815-89 4. The
Exploring the Terrorist Nature of Political Assassinations: A Reinterpretation of the Orsini Attentat
This paper reassesses the suggestion, advanced among others by David George, that the 1858 failed attentat by the Italian patriot Felice Orsini against Napoleon III can be considered as a
This series seeks to fill a conspicuous gap in the burgeoning literature on terrorism, guer-rilla warfare, and insurgency. The series adheres to the highest standards of scholarship and discourse and
Sayyid Qutb and the Origins of Radical Islamism
  • J. Calvert
  • Political Science
    International Dialogue
  • 2013
In August 2013, the Egyptian military, which deposed the elected president Mohammed Mursi a month earlier, harshly cracked down on the protestors. The protestors, led by the Muslim Brotherhood, aimed