The Formation of Uranus and Neptune among Jupiter and Saturn

@article{Thommes2002TheFO,
  title={The Formation of Uranus and Neptune among Jupiter and Saturn},
  author={E. Thommes and Martin J. Duncan and Harold F. Levison},
  journal={The Astronomical Journal},
  year={2002},
  volume={123},
  pages={2862 - 2883}
}
The outer giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, pose a challenge to theories of planet formation. They exist in a region of the solar system where long dynamical timescales and a low primordial density of material would have conspired to make the formation of such large bodies (∼15 and 17 times as massive as Earth, respectively) very difficult. Previously, we proposed a model that addressed this problem: Instead of forming in the trans-Saturnian region, Uranus and Neptune underwent most of their… 

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