The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Structure of Cell Membranes

@article{Singer1972TheFM,
  title={The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Structure of Cell Membranes},
  author={S. Singer and G. L. Nicolson},
  journal={Science},
  year={1972},
  volume={175},
  pages={720 - 731}
}
  • S. Singer, G. L. Nicolson
  • Published 1972
  • Chemistry
  • Science
  • A fluid mosaic model is presented for the gross organization and structure of the proteins and lipids of biological membranes. The model is consistent with the restrictions imposed by thermodynamics. In this model, the proteins that are integral to the membrane are a heterogeneous set of globular molecules, each arranged in an amphipathic structure, that is, with the ionic and highly polar groups protruding from the membrane into the aqueous phase, and the nonpolar groups largely buried in the… CONTINUE READING
    5,339 Citations
    A FLUID LIPID‐GLOBULAR PROTEIN MOSAIC MODEL OF MEMBRANE STRUCTURE *
    • S. Singer
    • Chemistry, Medicine
    • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
    • 1972
    • 85
    Membrane fluidity and cellular functions.
    • S. J. Singer
    • Chemistry, Medicine
    • Advances in experimental medicine and biology
    • 1975
    • 406
    Lipid domains in model membranes: a brief historical perspective.
    • 31
    Fluidity of cell membranes--current concepts and trends.
    • 246
    HETEROGENEITY IN THE PLASMA MEMBRANE LIPIDS OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS
    • 9
    NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE STUDIES OF THE STRUCTURE OF MODEL MEMBRANE SYSTEMS: THE EFFECT OF SURFACE CURVATURE *
    • S. Chan, M. Sheetz, +4 authors A. Yau
    • Materials Science, Medicine
    • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
    • 1973
    • 46
    Physics of biological membranes
    • 21

    References

    SHOWING 1-10 OF 77 REFERENCES
    Biological membrane structure, I. The protein crystal model for membranes.
    • G. Vanderkooi, D. E. Green
    • Chemistry, Medicine
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    • 1970
    • 88
    • PDF
    On the orientation of lipids in chloroplast and cell membranes
    • A. Benson
    • Biology, Medicine
    • Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
    • 1966
    • 196
    Calorimetric evidence for the liquid-crystalline state of lipids in a biomembrane.
    • 322
    • PDF
    Protein conformations in cellular membranes.
    • D. Wallach, P. Zahler
    • Chemistry, Medicine
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    • 1966
    • 191
    • PDF
    Membrane structure: spin labeling and freeze etching of Mycoplasma laidawii.
    • 87
    • PDF
    On the interactions of lipids and proteins in the red blood cell membrane.
    • 101
    • PDF
    Some factors in the interpretation of protein denaturation.
    • W. Kauzmann
    • Chemistry, Medicine
    • Advances in protein chemistry
    • 1959
    • 4,012