The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Structure of Cell Membranes

@article{Singer1972TheFM,
  title={The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Structure of Cell Membranes},
  author={S. Jonathan Singer and Garth L. Nicolson},
  journal={Science},
  year={1972},
  volume={175},
  pages={720 - 731}
}
A fluid mosaic model is presented for the gross organization and structure of the proteins and lipids of biological membranes. The model is consistent with the restrictions imposed by thermodynamics. In this model, the proteins that are integral to the membrane are a heterogeneous set of globular molecules, each arranged in an amphipathic structure, that is, with the ionic and highly polar groups protruding from the membrane into the aqueous phase, and the nonpolar groups largely buried in the… 

A FLUID LIPID‐GLOBULAR PROTEIN MOSAIC MODEL OF MEMBRANE STRUCTURE *

  • S. Singer
  • Biology
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1972
The thermodynamic and experimental bases for the lipid‐globular protein mosaic model for the organization of biological membranes, which was proposed some six years ago and has since been elaborated 6,26 are described.

Membrane fluidity and cellular functions.

  • S. Singer
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • 1975
The model of the lipids and proteins of membranes called the “fluid mosaic model” is adopted as a working hypothesis of membrane structure and what it might imply about the mechanisms of a variety of important cellular functions and activities is considered.

Lipid domains in model membranes: a brief historical perspective.

It has turned out to be difficult to quantitatively study the small-scale structure of biological membranes, and a major part of the insight into membrane micro- and nano-domains and the concepts used to describe them have hence come from studies of simple lipid bilayers as models of membranes.

Fluidity of cell membranes--current concepts and trends.

HETEROGENEITY IN THE PLASMA MEMBRANE LIPIDS OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS

Renewed interest in the heterogeneity of membrane organization was awakened by a series of experiments and speculations on the organization of membrane lipids, which suggest, if only indirectly, that membranelipids are heterogeneously distributed.

The Fluid Mosaic Model of Membrane Structure

The fluid mosaic model is applied to explain or predict the relatively hydrophobic amino acid composition of integral proteins, their large content of a-helical secondary structure, the characteristics of the short-range interactions of lipids and integral protein, the molecular asymmetry of the integral proteins and phospholipids of membranes, the possible biogenesis of such asymmetry, and the mechanisms of transport of small ionic and polar molecules through membranes.

Toward a new picture of the living plasma membrane

New methods to study the organization of membrane components at these scales have also been developed, and provide an opportunity to synthesize a new picture of the living cell surface as an active membrane composite.

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE STUDIES OF THE STRUCTURE OF MODEL MEMBRANE SYSTEMS: THE EFFECT OF SURFACE CURVATURE *

Lipid bilayers are model systems of choice in membrane research, and many workers in the field have attempted to characterize the structure of lipid bilayers alone in the hope that some of the findings for these model systems may illustrate features which are also important in theructure of biological membranes.

The Role of Membrane Lipids in the Arrangement of Complexes in Photosynthetic Membranes

The fluid-mosaic model of Singer and Nicolson (1972) states that the lipids arranged in a bilayer represent the fluid matrix in which the membrane proteins are distributed in a random manner within

Physics of biological membranes

A brief review of recent theoretical and experimental progress on lipid bilayer structure and dynamics, lipid phase transitions, lipid-protein and lipid-cholesterol interactions, intermembrane forces, and the physical constraints imposed on biomembrane function and evolution are presented.
...

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