The Five Stages of Fascism*

@article{Paxton1998TheFS,
  title={The Five Stages of Fascism*},
  author={Robert O. Paxton},
  journal={The Journal of Modern History},
  year={1998},
  volume={70},
  pages={1 - 23}
}
  • R. Paxton
  • Published 1 March 1998
  • Art
  • The Journal of Modern History
At first sight, nothing seems easier to understand than fascism. It presents itself to us in crude, primary images: a chauvinist demagogue haranguing an ecstatic crowd; disciplined ranks of marching youths; uniform-shirted militants beating up members of some demonized minority; obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation, or victimhood; and compensatory cults of unity, energy, and purity, pursued with redemptive violence. Yet great difficulties arise as soon as one sets out to… 
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References

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The Franco Regime
  • H. Graham
  • Political Science
    The Historical Journal
  • 1989
Franco once described the Falange as the clacking which followed him on his trips around Spain. T h e candour of this remark cuts through the Falange's self-aggrandizing rhetoric to suggest its
The image of man. The creation of modern masculinity
George L. Mosse's book exemplifies the best in a new wave of histories focusing on masculinity in Europe since the second half of the eighteenth century. Not everything in this book is new, nor will
65 Susan Sontag made an interesting effort to extract the elements of a fascist aesthetic from the work of Leni Riefenstahl : “ Fascinating Fascism
  • Who Were the Fascists ? Social Roots of European Fascism Journal of Modern History
  • 1986
Fascists may achieve no more than a "superficial" and "fragile" consent. Victoria De Grazia, The Culture of Consent: Mass Organization of Leisure in Fascist Italy
  • The borders between the two kinds of regime are blurred here, for, in practice, neither gets its wish
  • 1981
See, more generally> J. E. Farquharson, The Plough and the Swastika
  • 1976
Susan Sontag made an interesting effort to extract the elements of a fascist aesthetic from the work of Leni Riefenstahl
  • Susan Sontag, Under the Sign of Saturn
  • 1975
Fascist Imperialism and Racism
  • The Ax Within
  • 1974
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