The Five Stages of Fascism*

  title={The Five Stages of Fascism*},
  author={Robert O. Paxton},
  journal={The Journal of Modern History},
  pages={1 - 23}
  • R. Paxton
  • Published 1 March 1998
  • Art
  • The Journal of Modern History
At first sight, nothing seems easier to understand than fascism. It presents itself to us in crude, primary images: a chauvinist demagogue haranguing an ecstatic crowd; disciplined ranks of marching youths; uniform-shirted militants beating up members of some demonized minority; obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation, or victimhood; and compensatory cults of unity, energy, and purity, pursued with redemptive violence. Yet great difficulties arise as soon as one sets out to… 
Homeland Nationalism Gone Wild: Nationalism and Fascism
Although fascist-style movements advocating race hatred continue to make headlines in twenty-first-century Europe, few would argue that fascism still poses an imminent threat to European democracy.
  • Dan Tamir
  • Sociology
    The Historical Journal
  • 2014
ABSTRACT Apart from Italian fascism and German National-Socialism – the most famous fascisms of the interwar era – considerable research has been conducted during the past two decades about generic
Ur-Fascism and Neo-Fascism
Fascism was once a momentous and imperative subject of study, but as the memory of atrocity faded there has been a lessening of stakes and a forgetting of its previous import. The election of Donald
Populismus und Faschismus in Europa: Wahlverwandtschaft oder Mesalliance?
Abstract The relationship between fascism und populism has scarcely been scrutinized on a social and ideological level. Rather, their common features are seen on a socio - psychological level ( anti
Neoliberal Fascism as the Endpoint of Casino Capitalism
This article explores neoliberal fascism as a distinctive political formation within the current historical moment. In doing so, it first analyzes neoliberalism as a project that has since the 1970s
Fascists: A Sociology of Fascist Movements
TAKING FASCISTS SERIOUSLY This book seeks to explain fascism by understanding fascists – who they were, where they came from, what their motivations were, how they rose to power. I focus here on the
The English Mistery, the BUF, and the Dilemmas of British Fascism*
  • D. Stone
  • History
    The Journal of Modern History
  • 2003
Was there a distinctively British form of fascism? The idea that fascism was a continental European import, thoroughly irrelevant to British concerns and unsuited to the British way of life has long
Big Business and Fascism: A Dangerous Collusion
Anxieties stemming from rising inequalities have led significant sections of the world’s population to reject democratic practices and place their trust in politicians with fascist tendencies who
Fascism as Action through Time (Or How It Can Happen Here)
The purpose of this paper is to discuss how fascism may be identified by its actions, the stages through which a fascist rule takes power, and how to recognize it before it does so. The thesis is
A.K. Chesterton and the problem of British fascism, 1915-1973
Fascist and extreme right-wing political movements in Britain have been the subject of enduring interest to historians since 1945, with the majority of works centring on the British Union of Fascists


The Franco Regime
  • H. Graham
  • Political Science
    The Historical Journal
  • 1989
Franco once described the Falange as the clacking which followed him on his trips around Spain. T h e candour of this remark cuts through the Falange's self-aggrandizing rhetoric to suggest its
The image of man. The creation of modern masculinity
George L. Mosse's book exemplifies the best in a new wave of histories focusing on masculinity in Europe since the second half of the eighteenth century. Not everything in this book is new, nor will
65 Susan Sontag made an interesting effort to extract the elements of a fascist aesthetic from the work of Leni Riefenstahl : “ Fascinating Fascism
  • Who Were the Fascists ? Social Roots of European Fascism Journal of Modern History
  • 1986
Fascists may achieve no more than a "superficial" and "fragile" consent. Victoria De Grazia, The Culture of Consent: Mass Organization of Leisure in Fascist Italy
  • The borders between the two kinds of regime are blurred here, for, in practice, neither gets its wish
  • 1981
See, more generally> J. E. Farquharson, The Plough and the Swastika
  • 1976
Susan Sontag made an interesting effort to extract the elements of a fascist aesthetic from the work of Leni Riefenstahl
  • Susan Sontag, Under the Sign of Saturn
  • 1975
Fascist Imperialism and Racism
  • The Ax Within
  • 1974