The Ferret Model for Influenza

  title={The Ferret Model for Influenza},
  author={Yumiko Matsuoka and Elaine W Lamirande and Kanta Subbarao},
  journal={Current Protocols in Microbiology},
A major challenge in influenza research is the selection of an appropriate animal model that accurately reflects the disease and protective immune response to influenza infection in humans. Ferrets are exquisitely susceptible to infection with human influenza viruses and are widely believed to be the ideal small animal model for influenza research. Mice have also been used for influenza vaccine research for decades. Ferrets are used as an animal model for the study of influenza because they are… 

Animal Models for Influenza Virus Pathogenesis and Transmission

Animal models of influenza are essential to research efforts aimed at understanding the viral and host factors that contribute to the disease and transmission outcomes of influenza virus infection in humans and allow the pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality in the population through amelioration of the virulence or transmissibility of influenza viruses.

Animal models for influenza virus pathogenesis, transmission, and immunology

Assessment of the ferret as an in vivo model for mumps virus infection.

It is suggested that results to be obtained from ferrets are limited in fundamental in vivo MuV research and that they may not be a suitable animal model for this virus.

Pandemic influenza A H1N1 in Swine and other animals.

  • J. Keenliside
  • Biology, Medicine
    Current topics in microbiology and immunology
  • 2013
Increased surveillance of swine populations for influenza viruses has been suggested as a control measure against the development of future pandemic viruses and future surveillance and reporting policies must include provisions to protect the livelihoods of farmers.

Low Dose Influenza Virus Challenge in the Ferret Leads to Increased Virus Shedding and Greater Sensitivity to Oseltamivir

Low dose challenge gives a disease that more closely parallels the disease parameters of human influenza infection, and provides an improved pre-clinical model for the assessment of influenza therapeutics, and potentially, influenza vaccines.

Modeling human influenza infection in the laboratory

This review will focus on the biosafety, biosecurity, and ethical concerns that must be considered in pursuing influenza research, in addition to focusing on the two animal models – mice and ferrets – most frequently used by researchers as models of human influenza infection.

Non-Mouse-Adapted H1N1pdm09 Virus as a Model for Influenza Research

A/South Africa/3626/2013 (H1N1)pdm09 virus was found to be an appropriate candidate to replace PR8 as a model virus for influenza research and no prior adaptation to the animal model is needed to reach the pathogenicity level of the classical mouse-adapted PR8 virus.

Molecular pathogenesis of influenza in swine and engineering of novel recombinant influenza viruses

These studies have advanced the understanding of molecular basis of pathogenesis of influenza in the swine host and have contributed to the development of improved vaccines and influenza-based vectors with potential applications in both human and veterinary medicine.

The Mouse as Model System to Study Host‐Pathogen Interactions in Influenza A Infections

The basic protocols for infecting mice with influenza virus and studying the main pathological changes associated with disease are provided and critical parameters, e.g., virus variants and subtypes or mouse strains, are discussed.



The Role of Animal Models In Influenza Vaccine Research

The features and contributions of commonly used animal models for influenza vaccine research are discussed and the recent emergence of the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus underscores the unpredictable nature of influenza viruses and the importance of pandemic preparedness.

The cotton rat provides a useful small-animal model for the study of influenza virus pathogenesis.

Results indicate that cotton rats will be useful for further studies of influenza pathogenesis and immunity, and a biphasic response was observed for RANTES, IFN-gamma, IL4, IL10 and IL12-p40, with increased mRNA levels early during virus replication followed by a later increase that coincided with pulmonary inflammation.

The guinea pig as a transmission model for human influenza viruses.

It is demonstrated that influenza virus can pass between guinea pigs by means of droplet spread and thereby establish the suitability of the guinea pig as a model host for influenza virus transmission studies.

Animal models in influenza vaccine testing

In this review, various animal species that can be infected with influenza are discussed, and the main animals used for testing vaccines destined for human use are laboratory mice and ferrets and, to a lesser extent, macaques.

Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Viruses in Ferrets

It is demonstrated that both H5N1 viruses were highly virulent in the outbred ferret model, unlike the differential pathogenicity documented in inbred BALB/c mice.

Influenza virus infection of newborn rats: virulence of recombinant strains prepared from influenza virus strain A/Okuda/57.

It is indicated that the behaviour of influenza viruses in infant rats is an indication of virus virulence for man, and could provide a test of virulence that would facilitate the development of live attenuated virus vaccines for human use.

Growth of influenza A viruses in hamsters

The results showed that although the temperature-sensitive and cold-adapted recombinant viruses replicated to considerably lower titres than their wild-type parent virus strains in hamster lung and at 37° C in embryonated eggs, no similar pattern of growth was observed for the group of A/PR8 and A/Okuda recombinant influenza viruses studied in these systems.

Assessment of signs of influenza illness in the ferret model.

Influenza virus infection of the guinea pig: Immune response and resistance

Guinea pigs previously infected with virus or passively immunized with hyperimmune serum were relatively resistant to reinfection with influenza virus A/England/42/72 and inoculation of guinea pigs with spleen cells from immune donor animals, together with or without immune serum did not give or enhance resistance to challenge virus infection.