The Ferret: An Animal Model to Study Influenza Virus

@article{Maher2004TheFA,
  title={The Ferret: An Animal Model to Study Influenza Virus},
  author={John Andrew Maher and Joanne Destefano},
  journal={Lab Animal},
  year={2004},
  volume={33},
  pages={50-53}
}
There has been much critical influenza research conducted in a little-known laboratory animal—the ferret. The authors review some of these findings, discuss the reasons the ferret often becomes a model for influenza infection, and compare the ferret with other animal models. 
Modeling human influenza infection in the laboratory
TLDR
This review will focus on the biosafety, biosecurity, and ethical concerns that must be considered in pursuing influenza research, in addition to focusing on the two animal models – mice and ferrets – most frequently used by researchers as models of human influenza infection.
The ferret as a model organism to study influenza A virus infection
TLDR
This work compares the advantages and limitations of the mouse, ferret and guinea pig models for research with influenza A viruses, emphasizing the multifarious uses of the ferret in the assessment of influenza viruses with pandemic potential.
Chimeric antibodies with extended half-life in ferrets
Ferrets have long been used as a disease model for the study of influenza vaccines, but a more recent use has been for the study of human monoclonal antibodies directed against influenza viruses.
Immune Imprinting in the Influenza Ferret Model
TLDR
Animal models that are used to investigate influenza pathogenesis and vaccination do recapitulate the pre-immune history in the human population, which is necessary for understanding infection and transmission and for designing efficacious vaccines.
Animal Models in Influenza Research.
TLDR
This chapter will describe standard protocols relevant for in vivo experiment, including procedures required prior to the start of the animal experiment and sample processing, as well as mice, guinea pigs, ferrets, pigs, and chickens.
Animal Models to Study Influenza Virus Pathogenesis and Control
TLDR
Characteristics of non-human primates such as rhesus and cynomolgus macaques and cotton rat as a small animal model are discussed, which may be more predictive of the responses in humans due to their close evolution- ary relationship.
The mouse and ferret models for studying the novel avian-origin human influenza A (H7N9) virus
TLDR
The mouse and ferret model enables detailed studies of the pathogenesis of this illness and lay the foundation for drug or vaccine evaluation.
Modification of the Ferret Model for Pneumonia From Seasonal Human Influenza A Virus Infection
TLDR
The above H1N1 and H3N2 strains cause severe pneumonia in ferrets by use of the modified experimental procedures and provide a good model for pneumonia caused by seasonal influenza A virus infection in humans.
Complexities in Ferret Influenza Virus Pathogenesis and Transmission Models
TLDR
A comprehensive overview of parameters to consider when planning an experiment using ferrets, collecting data from the experiment, and placing results in context with previously performed studies is provided, underscoring the wide heterogeneity of protocols currently used for ferret studies.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 42 REFERENCES
Studies of influenza virus infection in newborn ferrets.
TLDR
Influenza virus infection by the intranasal route was found to be invariably fatal in newborn ferrets, and it is suggested that obstruction of airways and oesophageal passages, in combination with feeding difficulties, played a major role in causing death.
Lessons for human influenza from pathogenicity studies with ferrets.
TLDR
Ferret influenza has been used to elucidate the following facets of pathogenicity that bear on questions about human disease: the differential infectivity of virus strains for the upper respiratory tract (URT); the reasons for less severe infection of the lower respiratory tract than of the URT; why pneumonia is rare; and why strains differ in the production of LRT infection.
Influenza virus infections and immunity: a review of human and animal models.
TLDR
The pathology and clinical signs of influenza infection in both natural and experimental hosts, the advantages and disadvantages of the most common experimental influenza infection models, and the contribution of animal models to the understanding of local and systemic immunity to influenza infection are discussed.
Ferrets as a transmission model for influenza: sequence changes in HA1 of type A (H3N2) virus.
TLDR
Ferrets used as an animal model to study whether controlled transmission of type A influenza is similar to human transmission when sequence changes in HA1 are used as the outcome showed the value of the ferret model.
Intestinal replication of influenza A viruses in two mammalian species
TLDR
The results do establish that the majority of influenza viruses have the potential to replicate in the intestinal tissues of some mammals and suggest that there are differences among the influenza A viruses in tissue tropism in different mammals.
Husbandry and management of the domestic ferret.
TLDR
The author reviews the basic care and management of ferrets in the animal facility, which proves to be excellent models for several fields of study, including virology and immunology.
Influenza in ferrets and guinea pigs: effect on cell-mediated immunity
TLDR
Lack of a suppressive effect on systemic cell-mediated immunity after influenza challenge in these two animal models of mild influenza confirmed previous findings in humans with mild influenza infection.
Immunity to influenza in ferrets
TLDR
A secondary antibody response was also observed following infection of ferrets previously inoculated with homologous inactivated influenza virus vaccine, although no detectable serum antibody was produced after vaccination.
The pregnant ferret as a model for studying the congenital effects of influenza virus infection in utero: infection of foetal tissues in organ culture and in vivo.
TLDR
The pregnant ferret appears to be a suitable model for investigating the effects on development of foetal infection with influenza virus but it may have disadvantages with regard to the nature and strength of the placental barrier.
...
...