The Feather Holes on the Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica and Other Small Passerines are Probably Caused by Brueelia Spp. Lice

@inproceedings{Vas2008TheFH,
  title={The Feather Holes on the Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica and Other Small Passerines are Probably Caused by Brueelia Spp. Lice},
  author={Zolt{\'a}n Vas and Tibor Cs{\"o}rgő and Anders Pape M{\o}ller and Lajos R{\'o}zsa},
  booktitle={The Journal of parasitology},
  year={2008}
}
Abstract Barn swallows Hirundo rustica often have characteristic feather holes on wing and tail feathers. During the past 15 yr, several influential papers have been based on the assumption that these holes were chewed by the louse Machaerilaemus malleus. We gathered feather-hole data from barn swallows and other passerines at 2 sites in Hungary and correlated the presence of holes with louse infestations and, more specifically, with the occurrence of M. malleus versus other species of avian… 
Relationship between sexual signals and louse (Insecta: Phthiraptera) infestation of breeding and migrating Barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) in Hungary
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It is suggested that attractive males have more physical interactions during the breeding season, than less attractive males, hence they are more exposed to louse transmission, and therefore the difference in the infestation declines towards the end of thebreeding season.
Ringing Procedure Can Reduce the Burden of Feather Lice in Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica
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This is the first evidence that bird ringing affects ectoparasite infestations, and significantly more new holes appeared in the reduced ringing procedure group, indicating the usual ringing procedures effectively reduce louse loads.
Feather holes of rock ptarmigan are associated with amblyceran chewing lice
Feather holes have traditionally been suggested to be feeding traces of chewing lice (mallophagans). There is controversy whether mallophagans are the real source of feather holes. We studied
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The origin of feather holes: a word of caution
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It is concluded that the origin of holes is still unknown, and so a prudent approach is desirable when interpreting the relationship between avian phenotype or fi tness and lice infestation inferred from hole counts.
Feather holes and flight performance in the barn swallow Hirundo rustica
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It is found that acceleration and velocity were significantly negatively associated with the number of holes in the wing flight feathers, but not with those in the tail feathers, which is consistent with the hypothesis that feather holes are costly in terms of impaired flight.
A New Species of Procyrnea Chabaud 1975 (Nematoda: Habronematidae) and Redescription of Two Chewing Lice (Mallophaga) from the Palawan Hill Myna, Gracula religiosa palawanensis (Passeriformes: Sturnidae), Philippines
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The nematode specimens consisted of three species, one of which proved to be new to science and is named, described and illustrated as Procyrnea graculae with prevalence rate of 20%.
Uropygial gland size correlates with feather holes, body condition and wingbar size in the house sparrow Passer domesticus.
TLDR
The idea of a positive relationship between uropygial gland and bird health in the house sparrow, the gland secretion affording resistance against chewing lice is supported.
Experimental evidence for costs due to chewing lice in the European bee-eater (Merops apiaster)
TLDR
A negative effect of chewing lice was found on body mass and sedimentation rate and to a lesser extent on haematocrit levels, and the results further suggest differences in sex-specific susceptibility.
Host–parasite interactions and vectors in the barn swallow in relation to climate change
TLDR
There was no consistent temporal change in host fitness during 1971-2008, suggesting that climate change affects parasite species differently, hence altering the composition of the parasite community, and thatClimate change causes changes in the virulence of parasites.
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