The Eye as an Optical Instrument: From Camera Obscura to Helmholtz's Perspective

@article{Wade2001TheEA,
  title={The Eye as an Optical Instrument: From Camera Obscura to Helmholtz's Perspective},
  author={Nicholas J. Wade and Stanley Finger},
  journal={Perception},
  year={2001},
  volume={30},
  pages={1157 - 1177}
}
The era of modern vision research can be thought of as beginning in the seventeenth century with Johannes Kepler's understanding of the optics of the camera obscura with a lens and its relation to the eye. During the nineteenth century, Helmholtz used “The eye as an optical instrument” as the title for one of his Popular Lectures, and such a conception of the eye is now accepted as a fundamental feature of visual science. In analysing the optics of the eye, Helmholtz constructed some novel… 

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