The Evolutionary Origins of Periodical Cicadas During Ice Ages

@article{Yoshimura1997TheEO,
  title={The Evolutionary Origins of Periodical Cicadas During Ice Ages},
  author={Jin Yoshimura},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  year={1997},
  volume={149},
  pages={112 - 124}
}
  • J. Yoshimura
  • Published 1 January 1997
  • Biology
  • The American Naturalist
Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) are known for their strikingly synchronized emergence, strong site tenacity, and unusually long (17- and 13-yr) life cycles for insects. Several explanations have been proposed for the origin and maintenance of synchronization. However, no satisfactory explanations have been made for the origins of the prime-numbered life cycles. I present an evolutionary hypothesis of a forced developmental delay due to climate cooling during ice ages. Under this scenario… 
The priming of periodical cicada life cycles.
  • P. Grant
  • Biology, Medicine
    Trends in ecology & evolution
  • 2005
TLDR
This work suggests that Periodical cicada life cycles evolved earlier than the Pleistocene and involved an abrupt transition from a nine-year to a 13-year life cycle, driven, in part, by interspecific competition.
Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas
TLDR
In this model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence, which could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.
Avian Predation Pressure as a Potential Driver of Periodical Cicada Cycle Length
TLDR
It is shown that periodical cicada emergences appear to set populations of potential avian predators on numerical trajectories that result in significantly lower potential predation pressure during the subsequent emergence.
Modelling the evolution of periodicity in the periodical cicadas
TLDR
If there is a sufficiently strong predation intensity affecting the pool of individuals emerging to reproduce, a non- periodical population may become proto-periodical such that reproductive success varies yearly, and an emergence strategy with a fixed life-cycle length can invade.
Developmental Plasticity of Life-Cycle Length in Thirteen-Year Periodical Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae)
TLDR
The confirmation of a reverse life- cycle switch in 13- cicadas suggests improvements to theories of life-cycle evolution in Magicicada and strengthens the case for developmental plasticity in speciation.
Transient habitats limit development time for periodical cicadas.
TLDR
Cicadas are affected by habitat characteristics, habitats change over 17 years, and cicadas may emerge, mate, and redistribute their offspring to track habitat dynamics.
SELECTION FOR PRIME-NUMBER INTERVALS IN A NUMERICAL MODEL OF PERIODICAL CICADA EVOLUTION
TLDR
This work investigates the hybridization hypothesis using a deterministic, discrete population model and shows that nonprime-numbered reproductive intervals disappear rapidly in comparison to the selection among the various prime-numbered life cycles.
Multimodal Life-Cycle Variation in 13- and 17-Year Periodical Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada)
TLDR
It is presented the first quantitative evidence confirming that a site with a 4-yr acceleration does not necessarily experience comparable emergence in the following year, and the first density estimate for a 3-yr early emergence of 17-yr cicadas (1.28/m2, within the range of published estimates for on-schedule emergences).
Competition and Stragglers as Mediators of Developmental Synchrony in Periodical Cicadas
TLDR
A nonlinear Leslie matrix–type model is developed that describes cicada dynamics accounting for predation, competition, and stragglers and shows that while straglers have the potential for introducing multiple sympatric broods, the interaction of interbrood competition with predation-driven Allee effects creates a system resistant to such invasions, and populations maintain developmental synchrony.
EVOLUTION OF PERIODICITY IN PERIODICAL CICADAS
TLDR
Although not enough information is known about periodical cicadas to draw firm conclusions, the theoretical arguments favor a combination of predator satiation and nymph competition as being key to the evolution of strictly fixed periods and occurrence of only one brood at most geographical locations.
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References

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TLDR
There are three separate and distinct species that occur together over most of the range of periodical cicadas and, wherever the species coexist, they are invariably synchronized.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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We examined emergence of male and female 13-yr periodical cicadas (Brood XIX) and mortality, due to avian predation, fungal infection (Massospora cicadina), en? vironmental factors, and senescence.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
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TLDR
The mtDNA evidence for population bottlenecks is consistent with the paleoclimatic model of periodical cicada evolution proposed by C. E. Carlton and myself (Cox and Carlton, 1988).
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TLDR
Three species of 17—yr periodical cicadas–Magicicada septendecim (Linnaeus), M. cassini (Fisher), and M. sePTendecula Alexander and Moore–have ranges that are coextensive except around the edges, and the present lack of microspatial separation in many situations is an artifact of human disturbance.
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TLDR
It is argued that cicadas feeding underground are protected from predation and that they must have a long developmental period because they feed on dilute xylem fluids, and that periodical cicada nymphs in certain parts of some suburban lawns do indeed occupy all the feeding space available to them, yet the herbivory can be sustained by the trees.
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