The Evolution of the Maxillary Canal in Probainognathia (Cynodontia, Synapsida): Reassessment of the Homology of the Infraorbital Foramen in Mammalian Ancestors

@article{Benoit2019TheEO,
  title={The Evolution of the Maxillary Canal in Probainognathia (Cynodontia, Synapsida): Reassessment of the Homology of the Infraorbital Foramen in Mammalian Ancestors},
  author={Julien Benoit and Irina Ruf and Juri A. Miyamae and Vincent Fernandez and Pablo Rodrigues and Bruce S. Rubidge},
  journal={Journal of Mammalian Evolution},
  year={2019},
  pages={1-20}
}
In mammals, the infraorbital canal provides a passage for the infraorbital ramus of the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve. The infraorbital nerve ensures tactile sensitivity of the upper teeth and face between the eye and upper lip and, more significantly, the innervation of mystacial vibrissae (whiskers). In contrast, most non-mammalian synapsids display a more “reptilian-like” ancestral condition in which a long and ramified maxillary canal completely enclosed the infraorbital nerve… 
The nasal cavity of two traversodontid cynodonts (Eucynodontia, Gomphodontia) from the Upper Triassic of Brazil
TLDR
A comparative analysis of the morphology of the nasal cavity, nasal recesses, nasolacrimal duct, and maxillary canals of both species using computed tomography highlights the changes that occurred in parallel to the origin of mammaliaforms.
A Basal Nonmammaliaform Cynodont from the Permian of Zambia and the Origins of Mammalian Endocranial and Postcranial Anatomy
TLDR
The occurrence of Nshimbodon indicates that charassognathids, like the basal cynodont Procynosuchus, were geographically widespread in southern Pangea by Lopingian times and provides evidence of correlated transformations in the feeding system, neck, and shoulder, which are consistent with novel mammal-like locomotor and feeding mechanics in the earliest Cynodonts.
Cranial anatomy of Bolotridon frerensis, an enigmatic cynodont from the Middle Triassic of South Africa, and its phylogenetic significance
TLDR
A computed tomographic reconstruction of BSPG 1934-VIII-7 represents by far the most extensive specimen of B. frerensis, providing novel information on its palatal and internal anatomy and recovering Bolotridon as the sister-taxon of Eucynodontia.
The rostral neurovascular system of Tyrannosaurus rex
The study of the rostral neurovascular system using CT scanning has shed new light on phylogenetic and palaeobiological reconstructions of many extinct tetrapods. This research shows a detailed
Palaeoneurology and palaeobiology of the dinocephalian therapsid Anteosaurus magnificus
Dinocephalians (Therapsida), some of the earliest amniotes to have evolved large body size, include the carnivorous Anteosauria and mostly herbivorous Tapinocephalia. Whilst the palaeoneurology of
Cranial morphology of the tanystropheid Macrocnemus bassanii unveiled using synchrotron microtomography
TLDR
The circumorbital bones were found to be similar in morphology to those of the archosauromorphs Prolacerta broomi and Protorosaurus speneri and it is confirmed the palatine, vomer and pterygoid to be tooth-bearing palatal bones, but also observed heterodonty on the pteryGoid and thePalatine.
A reassessment of the enigmatic diapsid Paliguana whitei and the early history of Lepidosauromorpha
TLDR
Microtomographic three-dimensional imaging of the cranial anatomy of Paliguana whitei is presented, providing strong evidence for lepidosauromorph affinities based on the structure of the temporal region and the implantation of marginal dentition, confirming that characteristics of pleurodont dental implantation evolved early on the le pidosaur stem-lineage.
A re-assessment of the oldest therapsid Raranimus confirms its status as a basal member of the clade and fills Olson's gap.
TLDR
CT scanning techniques are used to digitally reconstruct the bones and trigeminal canals of the snout of Raranimus in 3D and confirm that RarAnimus shares a high number of synapomorphies with more derived therapsids and is the only theraapsid known so far to display a "pelycosaur"-like maxillary canal bearing a long caudal alveolar canal that gives off branches at regular intervals.
Novel Endocranial Data on the Early Therocephalian Lycosuchus vanderrieti Underpin High Character Variability in Early Theriodont Evolution
TLDR
A redescription of the skull of the early therocephalian Lycosuchus based on a specimen from the middle Permian Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone of the South African Karoo Basin provides new insights into patterns of tooth replacement in lycosuchids, which have proven controversial for this taxon.
A morganucodontan (Mammaliaformes) from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, Utah, USA
A morganucodontan mammaliaform from Morrison We describe two skull fragments of a new morganucodontan from the Cisco Mammal Quarry (Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation), preserving portions of the
...
1
2
3
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 145 REFERENCES
Evolution of facial innervation in anomodont therapsids (Synapsida): Insights from X‐ray computerized microtomography
TLDR
The pattern of innervation of the anomodont “beak” is more similar to that in chelonians than in birds, and the presence or absence of tusks and postcanine teeth are often accompanied by corresponding variations of the rami innervating the caniniform process and the alveolar region.
The Primitive Cynodont Procynosuchus: Functional Anatomy of the Skull and Relationships
TLDR
The anatomy of the internal nares indicates that an arrangement of Jacobson’s organ and associated nerves, blood vessels and glands comparable to that of monotremes was present and an attempt is made to interpret its anatomy in functional terms.
Nasal Anatomy of the Non‐mammaliaform Cynodont Brasilitherium riograndensis (Eucynodontia, Therapsida) Reveals New Insight into Mammalian Evolution
TLDR
It is shown that principal features of the mammalian nasal cavity were already present in the sister‐group of mammaliaforms, as Brasilitherium riograndensis already had at least partially ossified turbinals.
Structure of the Nasal Region of Non-Mammalian Cynodonts and Mammaliaforms: Speculations on the Evolution of Mammalian Endothermy
TLDR
Ridges in this position suggest the presence of a palatopharyngeus muscle in late non-mammaliaform cynodonts that could hold the larynx in an intranarial position during rest or low activity levels to prevent inhaled air from entering the oral cavity, thus allowing cartilaginous respiratory turbinals to assume an additional role as temporal countercurrent exchange sites for heat and water conservation.
On the Cranial Osteology of the Hispaniolan Solenodon, Solenodon paradoxus Brandt, 1833 (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Solenodontidae)
TLDR
The Hispaniolan solenodon has a peculiar skull with numerous highly unusual features among mammals, including a prootic canal for the lateral head vein in the petrosal bone that heretofore are unknown in placentals.
Reappraisal of the envenoming capacity of Euchambersia mirabilis (Therapsida, Therocephalia) using μCT-scanning techniques
TLDR
Euchambersia manifests evidence of all characteristics of venomous animals: a venom gland (in the maxillary fossa), a mechanism to deliver the venom (the maxillary canal and/or the sulcus located ventrally to the fossa); and an apparatus with which to inflict a wound for venom delivery (the ridged dentition).
Digital Reconstruction of the Otic Region and Inner Ear of the Non-Mammalian Cynodont Brasilitherium riograndensis (Late Triassic, Brazil) and Its Relevance to the Evolution of the Mammalian Ear
TLDR
Brasilitherium fits in a sequence of gradual elongation of the cochlear canal associated with the enhancement in the capacity to hear higher frequencies among the constraints that might have triggered these transformations in small, insectivorous, and possibly nocturnal Mesozoic cynodont taxa is the improvement of detecting acoustically active insects.
The Relationship Between the Infraorbital Foramen, Infraorbital Nerve, and Maxillary Mechanoreception: Implications for Interpreting the Paleoecology of Fossil Mammals Based on Infraorbital Foramen Size
TLDR
The strong positive correlation between the ION and IOF size suggests that, in the absence of nerve tissue, the IOF can serve as a proxy for ION area, and maybe used to evaluate differences in maxillary mechanoreception in both extinct and extant taxa.
The skull of Morganucodon
TLDR
Two species of triconodont (atherian) mammal from the Lower Jurassic are described: M. oehleri from China and M. watsoni from Wales; the systematic position of Morganucodon is discussed.
A new carnivorous cynodont from the Ischigualasto Formation (Late Triassic, Argentina), with comments on eucynodont phylogeny
ABSTRACT The nearly complete skull of a recently discovered carnivorous eucynodont, Ecteninion lunensis, gen. et sp. nov., is described. This is the first new genus of carnivorous cynodont reported
...
1
2
3
4
5
...