The Evolution of the Martian Hydrosphere: Implications for the Fate of a Primordial Ocean and the Current State of the Northern Plains

@article{Clifford2001TheEO,
  title={The Evolution of the Martian Hydrosphere: Implications for the Fate of a Primordial Ocean and the Current State of the Northern Plains},
  author={Stephen M. Clifford and Stephen M. Clifford and Timothy J. Parker and Timothy J. Parker},
  journal={Icarus},
  year={2001},
  volume={154},
  pages={40-79}
}
Abstract In this paper we consider the hydraulic and thermal conditions that gave rise to the elevated source regions of the Late Hesperian outflow channels and explore their implications for the evolution of the Martian hydrosphere. We find that if the outflow channel floodwaters were derived from a subpermafrost aquifer, then it implies that, throughout the planet's first billion years of evolution, as much as one third of its surface was covered by standing bodies of water and ice. Following… 

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