The Evolution of Reversed Sexual Size Dimorphism in Hawks, Falcons and Owls: A Comparative Study

@article{Krger2005TheEO,
  title={The Evolution of Reversed Sexual Size Dimorphism in Hawks, Falcons and Owls: A Comparative Study},
  author={Oliver Kr{\"u}ger},
  journal={Evolutionary Ecology},
  year={2005},
  volume={19},
  pages={467-486}
}
  • O. Krüger
  • Published 1 September 2005
  • Biology, Psychology
  • Evolutionary Ecology
Many hypotheses have been proposed to account for the origin and maintenance of reversed size dimorphism (RSD, females being larger than males) in hawks, falcons and owls, but no consensus has been reached. I performed comparative analyses, using both cross-taxa data and phylogenetically independent contrasts, to investigate potential correlates of reversed size dimorphism. Using a similar set of explanatory variables, covering morphology, life history and ecology, I tested whether any trait… 
Higher reproductive success of small males and greater recruitment of large females may explain strong reversed sexual dimorphism (RSD) in the northern goshawk
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It is concluded that RSD may be favoured in this goshawk population because small males tend to enjoy higher reproductive success and large females greater recruitment, rather than by reproductive success as previously postulated.
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The fact that the reproductive advantages associated with body size and condition were observed in an essentially monomorphic population the same selection pressures previously found in species with marked dimorphism suggests that such reproductive advantages may be counterbalanced in the study model by opposite selection pressures during other stages of the life cycle.
DISENTANGLING THE CONTRIBUTION OF SEXUAL SELECTION AND ECOLOGY TO THE EVOLUTION OF SIZE DIMORPHISM IN PINNIPEDS
TLDR
This study provides novel insights into the role of sexual selection for the coevolutionary dynamics of SSD and mating system and calls for the inclusion of ecological variables when studying sexual selection and argues for caution when assuming causality between coevolving traits.
Sex-biased parental care and sexual size dimorphism in a provisioning arthropod
TLDR
This study reveals that such costs can be associated with the evolution of dimorphism, and this should be investigated in other clades where parental care costs differ between sexes and species.
Engines of speciation: a comparative study in birds of prey
  • O. Krüger
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of evolutionary biology
  • 2008
Sexual selection as a promoter of speciation has received much attention in recent years, but has produced highly equivocal evidence. Here, I test whether sexual conflict is related to species
Reversed Sexual Size Dimorphism in the Ryukyu Scops Owl Otus elegans on Minami-Daito Island
TLDR
This is a rare study which addressed temporal variation in RSD in a raptor species using a dataset of the external measurements of 770 individuals obtained during a 17-year long-term population monitoring project.
Behavioural Ecology of Raptors
The eminent ornithologist Ian Newton lamented almost 40 years ago that research on birds of prey had made little contribution to the mainstream of ecological thought. Since then, and to prove Newton
Why female birds of prey are larger than males
TLDR
A novel version of the well-known nest defence hypothesis is justified as the most likely to explain the phenomenon in all birds of prey that show RSD: if the female predominates in actively defending the eggs and young against predators, then she is the heavier sex, and her relatively greater body mass is adaptive.
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References

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THE EVOLUTION OF REVERSED SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN OWLS: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF POSSIBLE SELECTIVE FACTORS
TLDR
The primary premise in the analysis is that if a given trait was important in the evolution of RSD it should be exhibited to a greater degree in highly dimorphic species than in less Dimorphic ones.
A comparative study on the evolution of reversed size dimorphism in monogamous waders
TLDR
The analysis of wing shape showed that males of species with acrobatic flight displays had wings with higher aspect ratio than non-acrobatic species, which probably increases flight manoeuvrability during acrobotic displays.
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TLDR
The framework for the evolution of sexual size dimorphism set out by Arak (1988) is used in an attempt to identify how different selection pressures acting on the two sexes could have resulted in the evolution in hawks, owls and skuas and to convince the reader of the usefulness of Arak's approach.
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TLDR
The results suggest that the directional selection on a particular size in kestrels may be under contrasting selection pressures by the environment, and, at least in breeding females, the advantages of large size can actually be counterbalanced during harsh environmental conditions.
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TLDR
It is concluded that a large body of empirical evidence will be needed before one can draw firm conclusions about the main selective factors that act to maintain current levels of RSD in natural populations of raptorial birds.
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TLDR
The results strongly suggest that sexual selection has had a major influence on sexual size dimorphism in Charadrii, whereas divergence in the use of feeding resources while breeding was not supported by the analyses.
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  • Biology
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TLDR
It is argued that it is inappropriate to assume that associations between a trait and body size or phylogeny are evidence of nonadaptive evolutionary “constraints,” and suggested that large body size itself, or the ecology of large species, promotes the development of coloniality and a polygynous mating system.
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TLDR
A common cause is proposed for this convergent pattern of sexual size dimorphism that conforms with Rensch’s rule, which is found in hummingbirds and phoretic flower mites.
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TLDR
The results suggest that the observed variation in dimorphism of Charadrii can be best explained by male body size responding more sensitively to variable sexual selection than female body size.
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TLDR
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