The Evolution of Agriculture in Insects

  title={The Evolution of Agriculture in Insects},
  author={Ulrich G. Mueller and Nicole Marie Gerardo and Duur K. Aanen and Diana L. Six and Ted R. Schultz},
  journal={Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics},
▪ Abstract Agriculture has evolved independently in three insect orders: once in ants, once in termites, and seven times in ambrosia beetles. Although these insect farmers are in some ways quite different from each other, in many more ways they are remarkably similar, suggesting convergent evolution. All propagate their cultivars as clonal monocultures within their nests and, in most cases, clonally across many farmer generations as well. Long-term clonal monoculture presents special problems… 

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