The Ever-Changing Landscape of Rotavirus Serotypes

@article{ORyan2009TheEL,
  title={The Ever-Changing Landscape of Rotavirus Serotypes},
  author={Miguel O'Ryan},
  journal={The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal},
  year={2009},
  volume={28},
  pages={S60-S62}
}
  • M. O'Ryan
  • Published 1 March 2009
  • Biology
  • The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Rotavirus is a double-stranded RNA virus that is characterized by substantial genetic diversity. The various serotypes of rotavirus have been determined by the presence of neutralizing epitopes on the outer capsid of the protein shell. At present, 5 rotavirus serotypes (G1, G2, G3, G4, G9) are the predominant circulating strains, accounting for approximately 95% of strains worldwide, although there is considerable geographic variability. Incidence rates for various serotypes also vary… 
Rotavirus diversity and evolution in the post-vaccine world.
TLDR
The recent introduction of two live attenuated RV vaccines into the childhood vaccination programs of various countries has been highly effective in reducing the incidence of RV diarrheal disease and will require continued surveillance of human RVs.
Evolutionary Dynamics of Human Rotaviruses: Balancing Reassortment with Preferred Genome Constellations
TLDR
It is revealed for the first time that genetically distinct RV clades of the same G/P-type can co-circulate and cause disease.
Rotavirus disease and vaccination: impact on genotype diversity.
TLDR
It appears that the total number of hospitalizations due to rotavirus infections is being reduced, at least in developed countries that implemented a universal immunization program, however, continued surveillance is warranted, especially regarding the long-term effects of the vaccines.
Resurgence of Rotavirus Genotype G12 in St. Louis During the 2014–2015 Rotavirus Season
TLDR
G12 re-emerged as the predominant rotavirus genotype in 2014-15, comprising a higher percentage of cases than in 2012-13, and there was no genomic evidence to indicate that the G12 strains in St. Louis had evolved to escape vaccine protection.
Strain diversity plays no major role in the varying efficacy of rotavirus vaccines: an overview.
Sequence Diversity of VP4 and VP7 Genes of Human Rotavirus Strains in Saudi Arabia.
TLDR
The current findings emphasize the importance of the continuous surveillance of the circulating rotav virus strains, which is crucial for monitoring virus evolution and helping in predicting the protection level afforded by rotavirus vaccines.
Rotavirus strain surveillance for three years following the introduction of rotavirus vaccine into Belém, Brazil
TLDR
G2P[4] was the predominant RV strain circulating during the first 20 months of the study, followed by G1P[8], probably reflect a natural fluctuation in RV strains over time, rather than a vaccine‐induced selective pressure.
Emergence of Rotavirus G12P[8] in St. Louis During the 2012-2013 Rotavirus Season.
TLDR
G12 was a dominant community-wide genotype in 2013 and demonstrates the potential for rapid shifts in rotavirus genotype distribution and underscores the need for vigilant surveillance to detect unusual genotypes that might escape from vaccine protection.
Rotavirus genetic diversity, disease association, and temporal change in hospitalized rural Kenyan children.
TLDR
The authors' study of rotavirus strains causing severe diarrhea in rural Kenyan children showed a predominance of P[8]G1 and confirms the importance of G8 and G9 strains in sub-Saharan Africa.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 39 REFERENCES
Global distribution of rotavirus serotypes/genotypes and its implication for the development and implementation of an effective rotavirus vaccine
TLDR
The temporal and geographical distribution of human rotavirus G and P types was reviewed by analysing a total of 45571 strains collected globally from 124 studies reported from 52 countries on five continents published between 1989 and 2004 and revealed several characteristic features.
Characterization of Serotype G9 Rotavirus Strains Isolated in the United States and India from 1993 to 2001
TLDR
The high potential of G9 strains to generate different P and G serotype combinations through reassortment suggests that it will be important to determine if current vaccines provide heterotypic protection against these strains and underscores the need for continued surveillance for G9 and other unusual or emerging rotavirus strains.
Detection and Characterization of Novel Rotavirus Strains in the United States
TLDR
Both sequence analysis of the VP7 open reading frame and binding to a G9-specific monoclonal antibody strongly suggest that U.S. G9 strains belong to serotype G9, which could suggest the emergence of new strains or inadequate diagnosis in the past.
Molecular Epidemiology of Rotavirus in Central and Southeastern Europe
TLDR
The findings might implicate challenges for rotavirus vaccine implementation in a wide geographic area of the Balkans and Central-Eastern Europe and underscore the importance of extensive strain surveillance for success in vaccine development.
Eight-Year Survey of Human Rotavirus Strains Demonstrates Circulation of Unusual G and P Types in Hungary
TLDR
Although once considered to be rare, P[9],G6 and P[8],G9 rotavirus strains represent potentially important new serotypes in Hungary.
Characterization of nontypeable rotavirus strains from the United States: identification of a new rotavirus reassortant (P2A[6],G12) and rare P3[9] strains related to bovine rotaviruses.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that rare strains with P and G serotypes distinct from those of experimental rotavirus vaccines circulate in the United States, making it important to understand whether current vaccine candidates protect against these strains.
Dominating prevalence of P[8],G1 and P[8],G9 rotavirus strains among children admitted to hospital between 2000 and 2003 in Budapest, Hungary
TLDR
The emergence of serotype G9 rotaviruses in Hungary and other parts of the world may have implications for future vaccine development and use, particularly, if current vaccine candidates cannot confer adequate homotypic or heterotypic protection against these strains.
Expanding global distribution of rotavirus serotype G9: detection in Libya, Kenya, and Cuba.
TLDR
Serotype G9 may be the fifth most common human rotavirus serotype, after serotypes G1 to G4, and future humanRotavirus vaccines will need to protect against disease caused by this serotype.
Rotavirus vaccines: an overview
TLDR
The greatest experience with a multivalent vaccine to date has been gained with the quadrivalent preparation containing RRV (VP7 serotype 3) and human-RRV reassortants of VP7 serotypes 1, 2, and 4 specificity.
Report of the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program 2003-2004.
TLDR
Serotype G1 has re-emerged as the major serotype nationally, representing 40 per cent of all strains, followed by serotype G3, which has implications for vaccine development strategies which have targeted prevention of disease due to serotypes G1-G4.
...
...