The European Union as a Masculine Military Power: European Union Security and Defence Policy in ‘Times of Crisis’

  title={The European Union as a Masculine Military Power: European Union Security and Defence Policy in ‘Times of Crisis’},
  author={Marijn Hoijtink and H.L.M. Muehlenhoff},
  journal={Political Studies Review},
  pages={362 - 377}
Against the background of a sense of crisis in the European Union and in international politics, European Union Member States have since 2016 increased their cooperation within the Common Security and Defence Policy, for example, establishing the European Defence Fund. Scholars have long pointed out that the European Union lacks the necessary ‘hard’ military power to influence international politics, subscribing to and constituting an image of the European Union as not masculine enough. We are… Expand
3 Citations
EU and gender-security sector reform in Ukraine and Mali: a picture is worth dozens of policies!
ABSTRACT This article is a contribution to critical International Relations scholarship on European Union foreign and security policy and to the debates on “Normative Europe”. It focuses on the waysExpand
Understanding the European Union as a Global Gender Actor: The Holistic Intersectional and Inclusive Study of Gender+ in External Actions
This article assesses the study of gender equality policies in European Union external actions with a focus on the theoretical and empirical routes to understanding the field in times of crises. ItExpand
Shifting articulations of space and security: boundary work in European space policy making
European space policy is currently at a watershed. In 2021, there will be two institutions responsible for European space activities: The EU Space Agency (EU SPA) and the civilian European Space Ag...


European Union Security and Defense Policy: Response to Unipolarity?
The European Union has, since 1999, moved deliberately, if slowly, to develop the capability to undertake autonomously a range of demanding political military operations beyond Europe's borders. ThisExpand
Gendering normative power Europe: lessons of the Women, Peace and Security agenda
The European Union is seen to operate at the international level by promoting ideas and values, rather than by exerting military or economic power. As a gender actor, the EU has played a key role inExpand
Western Europe’s Presence in the Contemporary International Arena
Western Europe’s status and impact within the contemporary international arena is a matter of contention and debate, reflecting its often elusive and intangible nature. On the one hand, enthusiasmExpand
Normative Power Europe: A Contradiction in Terms?
Twenty years ago, in the pages of the Journal of Common Market Studies, Hedley Bull launched a searing critique of the European Community’s ‘civilian power’ in international affairs. Since that timeExpand
Gender and the EU's Support for Security Sector Reform in Fragile Contexts
How does the European Union (EU) include ‘gender’ within its support to security sector reform (SSR) programmes? The EU has committed to include gender perspectives by implementing the Women,Expand
Gender Equality in European Union Development Policy in Times of Crisis
Gender equality is firmly established on the European Union development policy agenda. However, a series of interrelated crises, including migration, security and climate change, are becoming moreExpand
Howorth inter-governmentalism ? Decision-making in security and defense policy : Towards supranational
For scholars and practitioners of European politics alike, the distinction between supranationalism and inter-governmentalism has always been fundamental. This distinction has underpinned the variousExpand
The Politics of Preemption and the War on Terror in Europe
In the midst of the war on terror and unilateral US security politics, many observers look to Europe for alternatives. It is argued that Europe is particularly opposed to preemptive securityExpand
EU–NATO cooperation: the key to Europe’s security future
ABSTRACT The re-launch of the EU’s security and defence project in the wake of Brexit and the election of Donald Trump has focused the spotlight on the relationship between NATO and the EU. ThisExpand
Capitalizing on emergence: The ‘new’ civil security market in Europe
In recent years, the European Union has supported the development of a new civil security market, capable of providing security technology for new and global security challenges. This articleExpand