The European Center of Science Productivity: Research Universities and Institutes in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

@inproceedings{Powell2017TheEC,
  title={The European Center of Science Productivity: Research Universities and Institutes in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom},
  author={Justin J. W. Powell and Jennifer Dusdal},
  year={2017}
}
Abstract Purpose Growth in scientific production and productivity over the 20th century resulted significantly from three major countries in European science – France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Charting the development of universities and research institutes that bolster Europe’s key position in global science, we uncover both stable and dynamic patterns of productivity in the fields of STEM, including health, over the 20th century. Ongoing internationalization of higher education and… 

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