The Equal Rights Amendment Reconsidered: Politics, Policy, and Social Mobilization in a Democracy

  title={The Equal Rights Amendment Reconsidered: Politics, Policy, and Social Mobilization in a Democracy},
  author={D. Critchlow and Donald T. Cynthia L. Stachecki},
  journal={Journal of Policy History},
  pages={157 - 176}
In the early 1970s, fifty years after its first appearance in the U.S. Congress, the Equal Rights Amendment came the closest it ever would to ratification. The ERA declared: “Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.” After sailing through Congress in 1972 with bipartisan support, the amendment went to the states for ratification. The response was positive and immediate: Hawaii approved the ERA the same day, twenty… Expand
Integrating Women into Modern Kentucky History: The Equal Rights Amendment Debate (1972–1978) as a Case Study
In 1972, Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), a bill that guaranteed equality for women. In order for the ERA to become a constitutional amendment, it had to be ratified by threefourthsExpand
Time’s Up (Again?): Transforming Hollywood’s Industrial Culture
In the 1970s, almost fifty years before the “Time’s Up” movement, women in Hollywood unions organized “women’s committees” to counter institutional sexism and address rampant underemployment. WhileExpand
Right-Wing Organizers Do This Too: The Case of the Christian Coalition
This article documents and evaluates the organizing strategies of the Christian Coalition in the 1990s. Unlike most other Christian Right efforts, the Christian Coalition strongly emphasized aExpand
A Thesis by
The dissertation consists of four chapters which are closely related to each other. In the first chapter of the dissertation a general and abstract model of information systems is introduced andExpand
Here Comes the Sunn: Documentary Cinema's New Morning in America
University of Minnesota M.A. Thesis. May 2014. Advisor: Giovanna Dell'Orto. Major: Mass Communication. 1 computer file (PDF); iii, 71 pages.
Equality Laws Compared: The Caribbean, the UK and the USA
This chapter presents a review of the general equality legislation of Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, the UK and the USA, to compare the Caribbean legislative approach to those of the selected developedExpand


Why Era Failed: Politics, Women's Rights, and the Amending Process of the Constitution
Why ERA Failed looks at the systemic problems of politics and the amending process. The author, Mary Frances Berry, considers the behavior of the two sides from the perspective of a historian andExpand
The Equal Rights Amendment, Public Opinion, & American Constitutionalism
The defeat of the Equal Rights Amendment, given the fact that national surveys of public opinion regularly showed majorities in support of it, has raised questions about the responsiveness ofExpand
The Mobilization of the New Right: a Test of Various Explanations
A TTHE BEGINNING of the 1970s, feminism seemed to be on the rise. In 1972, Congress passsed the Equal Rights Amendment, and in 1973, the Supreme Court asserted that a woman's right to have anExpand
As Time Goes By: The Arrested Diffusion of the Equal Rights Amendment
Despite its initial momentum, the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) failed to be approved by the margin of states required for ratification. Although many explanations have been advanced for the defeat ofExpand
Equal Rights Amendment Activists in North Carolina
The debate for ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) in a southern state which is considered progressive in most areas stimulated this study about the nature of ERA activists. Who are theExpand
"Spiritual Warfare": Cultural Fundamentalism and the Equal Rights Amendment
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the U.S. Constitution was to have been the next prize for women after winning the vote in 1920. This agenda-first set in 1923--was not accepted by many women orExpand
When Do Movements Matter? The Politics of Contingency and the Equal Rights Amendment
Data on the state-level ERA ratification process are used here to address leading theoretical debates about the role of social movements, public opinion, and political climate on policy outcomes, theExpand
The Equal Rights Amendment as Status Politics
A basic status politics explanation of orientation toward the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is assessed in this paper. Conflicting orientations toward ERA areshown to stem from perceptions thatExpand
Explicit and Authentic Acts: Amending the US Constitution, 1776 - 2015
Over the course of the past two centuries, more than 10,000 amendments have been proposed by the method stipulated in Article V of the Constitution. Amazingly, only 33 have garnered the requiredExpand
Protecting soldiers and mothers : the political origins of social policy in the United States
It is generally believed that the United States lagged behind the countries of Western Europe in developing modern social policies. But, as Theda Skocpol shows in this historical analysis, the UnitedExpand