The Epidemiology of Environmental Perchlorate Exposure and Thyroid Function: A Comprehensive Review

@article{Tarone2010TheEO,
  title={The Epidemiology of Environmental Perchlorate Exposure and Thyroid Function: A Comprehensive Review},
  author={R. Tarone and L. Lipworth and J. Mclaughlin},
  journal={Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine},
  year={2010},
  volume={52},
  pages={653-660}
}
Objective: To review the epidemiological literature relevant to evaluating the risk of adverse effects on thyroid function associated with environmental perchlorate exposure. Methods: All studies investigating possible adverse effects of environmental perchlorate exposure on thyroid function in adults or in pregnant women and their newborns were critically evaluated. Results: There is no credible or consistent evidence from any of the numerous studies using a variety of designs that… Expand
Environmental exposure to perchlorate: A review of toxicology and human health
TLDR
The literature on health effects of perchlorate at environmental exposure levels is reviewed, with a focus on exposures during pregnancy and neurodevelopmental effects. Expand
CO-occurring exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate alters thyroid function in healthy pregnant women.
TLDR
Co-exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate may alter maternal thyroid function, specifically TSH, during pregnancy. Expand
Implications of the Reanalysis and Weight of Evidence Determination of Human Health Studies for Exposure to Perchlorates under Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Assessment
This paper applies cumulative and aggregate risk methods and weight of evidence determination to re-analysis of epidemiological and clinical studies of exposure to perchlorates. The implications ofExpand
Perchlorate in Water Supplies: Sources, Exposures, and Health Effects
  • C. Steinmaus
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Current Environmental Health Reports
  • 2016
TLDR
Expanding evidence suggests that young children, pregnant women, fetuses, and people co-exposed to similarly acting agents may be especially susceptible to perchlorate, a critical hormone for metabolism, neurodevelopment, and other physiologic functions. Expand
The Relationship between Perchlorate in Drinking Water and Cord Blood Thyroid Hormones: First Experience from Iran
TLDR
Investigating the relationship between drinking groundwater perchlorate and cord blood thyroid hormones level in an industrial region in Iran found that iodine status of the regions, as well as other environmental contaminants and genetic background, could impact on its relation with thyroid function of neonates. Expand
Urinary Nitrate, Thiocyanate, and Perchlorate and Serum Thyroid Endpoints Based on NHANES 2001 to 2002
TLDR
No evidence of functional thyroid abnormality was seen with exposure to the combined IUI agents and enhanced estimates of thyroid function, and PEC was weakly and negatively associated with TT4, but not with TSH, TT3, or free hormone. Expand
Impact of pregnancy and other factors on the levels of urinary perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate among females aged 15-44 years: data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2003-2008.
  • R. Jain
  • Medicine, Chemistry
  • Chemosphere
  • 2013
TLDR
Pregnancy did not affect the levels of perchlorate and nitrate but, new to this study, it was found that thiocyanate levels were statistically significantly lower among pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females (p<0.01). Expand
Thyroid nodules and thyroid autoimmunity in the context of environmental pollution
TLDR
Stakeholders, starting from policymarkers, should become more sensitive to the consequences for the thyroid resulting from exposure to EDC, and the economic burden resulting from such consequences has not been quantified thus far. Expand
Exposure of the US Population to Nitrate, Thiocyanate, Perchlorate, and Iodine Based on NHANES 2005–2014
TLDR
There was a significant decrease in urinary perchlorate from 2005 to 2014, and mean per chlorate equivalent concentrations (PEC) of all three goitrogens together decreased, while nitrate increased in contribution. Expand
Derivation of the critical effect size/benchmark response for the dose-response analysis of the uptake of radioactive iodine in the human thyroid.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the physiological intra-individual variation in iodine uptake is much larger than 5%. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 67 REFERENCES
Perchlorate: overview of risks and regulation.
  • G. Charnley
  • Medicine
  • Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 2008
The extent to which perchlorate, which occurs naturally and as an industrial contaminant, should or should not be regulated has become controversial. This review examines a number of inconsistentExpand
Clinical studies of exposure to perchlorate in the United States.
  • L. Braverman
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • 2007
TLDR
No abnormalities of circulating thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin, or ultrasound evaluation of thyroid structure were observed even though the thyroid uptake was decreased in some studies, according to a series of studies in normal volunteers. Expand
Thyroid health status of ammonium perchlorate workers: a cross-sectional occupational health study.
TLDR
The absence of evidence of an effect on thyroid function or blood cells from occupational airborne perchlorate exposure at a mean absorption of 34 mg/day demonstrates a no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) that can assist in the evaluation of human health risks from environmental per chlorate contamination. Expand
Perchlorate Exposure of the US Population, 2001–2002
TLDR
Assessment of perchlorate exposure in a nationally representative population of 2820 US residents, ages 6 years and older, during 2001 and 2002 as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), provides the first population-based assessment of the magnitude and prevalence of per chlorate exposure. Expand
Evaluation of a population with occupational exposure to airborne ammonium perchlorate for possible acute or chronic effects on thyroid function.
TLDR
Thyroid profiles and blood test parameters of liver, kidney, and bone marrow function were evaluated to assess any measurable chronic effects of perchlorate exposure on those organs and multiple regression was used to assess the effects of exposure variables and demographic variables on organ function parameters. Expand
Impact of Smoking and Thiocyanate on Perchlorate and Thyroid Hormone Associations in the 2001–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
TLDR
Thiocyanate in tobacco smoke and perchlorate interact in affecting thyroid function, and this effect can take place at commonly occurring per chlorate exposures. Expand
Perchlorate Clinical Pharmacology and Human Health: A Review
TLDR
Environmental studies have assessed the thyroidal health of newborns and adults at current environmental exposures to perchlorate and have concluded that the present levels appear to be safe. Expand
Perchlorate versus other environmental sodium/iodide symporter inhibitors: potential thyroid-related health effects.
TLDR
The iodine uptake inhibitory effects of nitrate and thiocyanate - as defined by their legally accepted maximal contaminant levels in drinking water - exceed the potential effect of the proposed RfD for perchlorate by far. Expand
Basis of the Massachusetts Reference Dose and Drinking Water Standard for Perchlorate
TLDR
Widespread exposure to perchlorate and other thyroid toxicants in drinking water and foods suggests that more comprehensive policies to reduce overall exposures and enhance iodine nutrition are needed. Expand
Does perchlorate in drinking water affect thyroid function in newborns or school-age children?
TLDR
Findings do not support the hypothesis that perchlorate in drinking water at concentrations as high as 100 to 120 micrograms/L suppresses thyroid function in newborns or school-age children. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...