The Enigma of Prokaryotic Life in Deep Hypersaline Anoxic Basins

  title={The Enigma of Prokaryotic Life in Deep Hypersaline Anoxic Basins},
  author={Paul W.J.J. van der Wielen and Henk Bolhuis and Sara Borin and Daniele Daffonchio and Cesare Corselli and Laura Giuliano and Giuseppe D’Auria and G. J. De Lange and Andreas Huebner and S. Varnavas and John Thomson and Christian Tamburini and Danielle G. Marty and Terry J. McGenity and Kenneth N. Timmis},
  pages={121 - 123}
Deep hypersaline anoxic basins in the Mediterranean Sea are a legacy of dissolution of ancient subterranean salt deposits from the Miocene period. Our study revealed that these hypersaline basins are not biogeochemical dead ends, but support in situ sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, and heterotrophic activity. A wide diversity of prokaryotes was observed, including a new, abundant, deeply branching order within the Euryarchaeota. Furthermore, we demonstrated the presence of a unique… 
Microbial Eukaryotes in Hypersaline Anoxic Deep-Sea Basins
Symbiosis may represent one strategy enabling eukaryotic survival in DHAB environments, and many ciliates in halocline water samples have been observed to host bacterial and/or archaeal epibiotic partners.
Deep Hypersaline Anoxic Basins as Untapped Reservoir of Polyextremophilic Prokaryotes of Biotechnological Interest
The current knowledge on prokaryotic diversity in DHABs is reviewed, highlighting the biotechnological applications of identified taxa and isolated species and the discovery of new species and molecules from these ecosystems is expanding the understanding of life limits.
Low Bacterial Diversity and High Labile Organic Matter Concentrations in the Sediments of the Medee Deep-Sea Hypersaline Anoxic Basin
The study suggested conditions hostile to bacteria in the sediments of the Medee Basin and preservation of sedimentary labile organic matter.
Unveiling microbial activities along the halocline of Thetis, a deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basin
This first metatranscriptome analysis of DHAB samples provides significant insights into shifts in metabolic activities of microorganisms as physicochemical conditions change from deep Mediterranean sea water to brine.
An Updated View of the Microbial Diversity in Deep Hypersaline Anoxic Basins
Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are marine extreme habitats, firstly discovered in the 1970s of the last century, located in several oceanographic regions, including the Mediterranean and Red
Microbial ecology of deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins.
Current knowledge of the diversity, genomics, metabolisms and ecology of prokaryotes in DHABs, characterized by prolonged historical separation of the brines from the upper water column, is reviewed.
Stratified prokaryote network in the oxic–anoxic transition of a deep-sea halocline
A 2.5-m-thick chemocline with a steep NaCl gradient at 3.3 km within the water column betweeen Bannock anoxic hypersaline brine and overlying sea water is reported, supporting some of the most biomass-rich and active microbial communities in the deep sea.
Sulfur cycling and methanogenesis primarily drive microbial colonization of the highly sulfidic Urania deep hypersaline basin
The data suggest that the complex microbial community is adapted to the basin's extreme chemistry, and the elevated biomass is driven largely by sulfur cycling and methanogenesis.
Microbial eukaryotes in the hypersaline anoxic L'Atalante deep-sea basin.
It is hypothesized that extreme environments may exert a high selection pressure possibly resulting in the evolution of an exceptional and distinctive assemblage of protists in the deep hypersaline anoxic basins in the Mediterranean Sea.
Comparative genomics reveals adaptations of a halotolerant thaumarchaeon in the interfaces of brine pools in the Red Sea
Using phylogenomic-based approaches, it is shown that the local archaeal community of five different BSI habitats is composed mostly of a single, highly abundant Nitrosopumilus-like phylotype that is phylogenetically distinct from the bathypelagic thaumarchaea; ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were absent.


The ecology of the extremely halophilic archaea
  • A. Oren
  • Environmental Science, Biology
  • 1994
The results of these studies, in combination with the information obtained from laboratory studies of representative isolates of the Halobacteriaceae, enable the beginning of an understanding of the functioning of the halophilic archaea in nature.
Discovery of an anoxic basin within the Strabo Trench, eastern Mediterranean
We report here the discovery of a basin, which we call the Tyro Basin, in the eastern Mediterranean in which anoxic conditions exist and organic-rich sediments are accumulating. Bottom water samples
Preliminary study on vertical distribution of microorganisms in the Bannock Basin waters (Eastern Mediterranean Sea)
The results demonstrate the presence of an abundant microbial flora in Bannock Basin, the most concentrated of any other anoxic hypersaline basin known so far: Red Sea, Orca Basin and Tyro Basin.
Life in the calcium chloride environment of Don Juan Pond, Antarctica
Reports point to an extreme dry valley–exposed rock South-Polar biome consisting predominantly of heterotrophic forms, mainly prokaryotic with occasional fungal associates, if this is correct Don Juan Pond must, like the dry valleys generally, consist only of converter–consumer populations lacking extensive capability for continuous carbon reduction.
Microbiology of the dry valleys of antarctica.
The kinds, numbers, and distribution of soil microorganisms in the valleys are investigated in order to gain insight into the practical problems of searching for life in an extreme environment and as they apply to martian exploration.
Aromatic hydrocarbon degradation patterns and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes in microbial cultures from deep anoxic hypersaline lakes in the eastern Mediterranean sea.
Southern hybridisation experiments showed that catechol 2,3-dioxygenase is plasmid encoded, and several mixed cultures able to grow on different aromatic hydrocarbons obtained from different depths of water/brine interfaces showed that the strains were related to Pseudomonas mendocina.