The Energetic Paradox of Human Running and Hominid Evolution [and Comments and Reply]

@article{Carrier1984TheEP,
  title={The Energetic Paradox of Human Running and Hominid Evolution [and Comments and Reply]},
  author={David R. Carrier and Anup Kumar Kapoor and Tasuku Kimura and Martin K. Nickels and Eugenie C Scott and Joseph K. So and Erik Trinkaus},
  journal={Current Anthropology},
  year={1984},
  volume={25},
  pages={483 - 495}
}
The energetic cost of running is relatively high in man. In spite of this, humans are adept endurance runners, capable of running down, for example, zebra and kangaroo. Distance running is made possible for man in part by an exceptional ability to dissipate exercise heat loads. Most mammals lose heat by panting, which is coupled to breathing and locomotor cycles during running. This interdependence may limit the effectiveness of panting as a means of heat dissipation. Because sweating is not… 
Thermoregulation and endurance running in extinct hominins: Wheeler's models revisited.
TLDR
This model suggests that for endurance running to be possible, a hominin would need locomotive efficiency, sweating rates, and areas of hairless skin similar to modern humans, and it is argued that these restrictions suggest that endurance running may have been possible for Homo erectus, but is unlikely for any earlier hominins.
Human locomotion and heat loss: an evolutionary perspective.
TLDR
As modern humans dispersed into a wide range of habitats over the last few hundred thousand years, recent selection has helped populations cope better with a broader range of locomotor and thermoregulatory challenges, but all humans remain essentially adapted for long distance locomotion rather than speed, and to dump rather than retain heat.
Endurance running and the evolution of Homo
TLDR
Judged by several criteria, humans perform remarkably well at endurance running, thanks to a diverse array of features, many of which leave traces in the skeleton.
Optimal running speed and the evolution of hominin hunting strategies.
TLDR
It is argued that neither extinct nor extant hominin populations are as flexible in the chosen speeds of persistence hunting pursuits as other researchers have suggested, and variations in the efficiency of human locomotion appear to be similar to those of terrestrial quadrupeds.
The energetic cost of locomotion: humans and primates compared to generalized endotherms.
TLDR
There is no evidence that primate locomotion is more costly than that of a generalized endotherm, although more data on adult Old World monkeys and apes would be useful, and human locomotion does not appear to be particularly efficient relative to that of other primates.
Reconsidering the effects of respiratory constraints on the optimal running speed.
TLDR
The observed minimum cost of transport (CoT) is explained by analyzing metabolic cost with respect to entrainment and a standard set of anthropometrics and it seems that bipedalism removed the respiratory constraints associated with quadrupedalism as originally suggested.
Alternative Metabolic Strategies are Employed by Endurance Runners of Different Body Sizes; Implications for Human Evolution
Objective A suite of adaptations facilitating endurance running (ER) evolved within the hominin lineage. This may have improved our ability to reach scavenging sites before competitors, or to hunt
Calcaneus length determines running economy: implications for endurance running performance in modern humans and Neandertals.
TLDR
It is shown that a skeletal correlate of Achilles tendon moment arm length, the length of the calcaneal tuber, does not correlate with walking economy, but correlates significantly with running economy and explains a high proportion of the variance in cost between individuals.
Economy and Endurance in Human Evolution
TLDR
The anatomical and physiological determinants of locomotor economy and endurance and their development in the hominin fossil record are reviewed and the development of endurance capabilities in Homo appears to parallel the evolutionary increase in brain size, cognitive sophistication, and metabolic rate.
Ultra-endurance athletic performance suggests that energetics drive human morphological thermal adaptation
TLDR
It is proposed that the interaction between prolonged physical exertion and hot or cold climates may induce powerful selective pressures driving morphological adaptation, allowing diversion of energy to other functional outcomes such as faster running.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 140 REFERENCES
Running and breathing in mammals.
TLDR
Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans, suggesting that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.
Gait and the energetics of locomotion in horses
It seems reasonable that quadrupeds should change gait from a walk to a trot to a gallop in such a way as to minimize their energy consumption, as human beings are known1 to change from a walk to a
Effect of hyperthermia on heat balance during running in the African hunting dog.
TLDR
The hunting dog’s low evaporation while running might increase the distance it can pursue its prey, and the hunting dog, like the domestic dog, increased respiratory evagination and maintained a nearly constant rectal temperature at high air temperatures.
Mechanical work in terrestrial locomotion: two basic mechanisms for minimizing energy expenditure.
TLDR
During running, trotting, hopping, and galloping, the power per unit weight required to maintain the forward speed of the center of mass is almost the same in all the species studied and the sum of these two powers is almost a linear function of speed.
Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. I. Metabolic energy consumption as a function of speed and body size in birds and mammals.
TLDR
This series of four papers investigates the link between the energetics and the mechanics of terrestrial locomotion using data from 62 avian and mammalian species to formulate a new allometric equation relating mass-specific rates of oxygen consumed during locomotion at a constant speed to speed and body mass.
Scaling of energetic cost of running to body size in mammals.
TLDR
It is found that steady-state oxygen consumption of seven groups of mammals (21 g-18 kg) increased almost linearly with running speed, and could be expressed by linear equations.
Heat storage in running antelopes: independence of brain and body temperatures.
TLDR
Blood supplying the brain appears to be cooled via a countercurrent heat exchange with cool blood draining the nasal mucosa (in the carotid rete), and heat storage accounted for 80-989;‘, of the calculated heat production during running.
Sweating in the kangaroo: a cooling mechanism during exercise, but not in the heat.
TLDR
The heat balance of kangaroos resting at 24OC was compared with that of animals hopping on a treadmill at a speed of 4 km, and sweating appeared under the control of adrenergic neurons, the receptors being a-receptors.
Bioenergetics and the origin of hominid bipedalism.
TLDR
It is concluded that bipedalism bestowed an energetic advantage on the Miocene hominoid ancestors of the Hominidae.
Body posture and mode of locomotion in early Pleistocene hominids.
  • H. Preuschoft
  • Biology, Medicine
    Folia primatologica; international journal of primatology
  • 1971
TLDR
The investigation is based primarily on the foot and leg bones from Olduvai Gorge, andalyses of this type are used to improve knowledge about Early Pleistocene hominids from East and South Africa.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...