The End of European Immigrant Servitude in the United States: An Economic Analysis of Market Collapse, 1772–1835

@article{Grubb1994TheEO,
  title={The End of European Immigrant Servitude in the United States: An Economic Analysis of Market Collapse, 1772–1835},
  author={Farley Grubb},
  journal={The Journal of Economic History},
  year={1994},
  volume={54},
  pages={794 - 824}
}
  • F. Grubb
  • Published 1 December 1994
  • History
  • The Journal of Economic History
Europeans stopped using servitude to finance passage to America sometime in the early nineteenth century, but exactly when and why immigrant servitude disappeared is a mystery. Hypotheses abound, but no consensus has emerged nor have scholars tested hypotheses. In this study, quantitative evidence for the final sixty years of immigrant servitude establishes when and why it disappeared. Servitude did not end because of insufficient demand, legal restrictions, or declines in passage fares. It… 

Immigration in American Economic History

TLDR
The literatures on historical and contemporary migrant flows are reviewed, yielding new insights on migrant selection, assimilation of immigrants into US economy and society, and the effect of immigration on the labor market.

Free and coerced migrations: the Atlantic in global perspective

What distinguished the mass transatlantic migration that occurred between Columbian contact and the early nineteenth century from the movements of peoples around the globe that occurred both before

Mass Migration under Sail: European Immigration to the Antebellum United States

1. A unique period for immigration 2. The onset and European origins of mass immigration 3. The jump in immigrant volume around 1830 4. Push, pull, and other factors in antebellum immigration 5. Who

Transatlantic wage gaps and the migration decision: Europe–Canada in the 1920s

As has been seen in other contexts, workers in similar occupations earned much higher wages in Canada than Europe during the 1920s. This observation and related aspects of immigration are addressed

Two Centuries of International Migration

The Statutory Regulation of Colonial Servitude: An Incomplete-Contract Approach☆

Abstract Statutory laws in colonial America required that servants be given a particular set of goods upon contract completion. These laws were innovative and unprecedented. Their purpose has been

Migration and Human Capital: Self-Selection of Indentured Servants to the Americas

When contracting, European merchants could at least partially observe characteristics such as the health, physical strength, and education of indentured servants. These characteristics, unobservable

Babes in Bondage? Debt Shifting by German Immigrants in Early America

  • F. Grubb
  • History
    Journal of Interdisciplinary History
  • 2006
Data from ship manifests and servant auctions can clarify the extent to which German immigrant families in early America resorted to intra-family debt shifting by selling their children into bondage.

Does Bound Labour Have To Be Coerced Labour?: The Case of Colonial Immigrant Servitude Versus Craft Apprenticeship and Life-Cycle Servitude-in-Husbandry

Why are some forms of bound labour more coercive than others? Specifically, why was European indentured servitude in America more coercive than craft apprenticeship or life-cycle

Spatializing gender and migration: the periodization of Atlantic Studies, 1500 to the present

Despite recent efforts to describe the changing relationship of the Atlantic to the wider world, scholars do not agree on the periodization of global integration and the end of the Atlantic's status

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 106 REFERENCES

The Disappearance of Organized Markets for European Immigrant Servants in the United States: Five Popular Explanations Reexamined

  • F. Grubb
  • History, Economics
    Social Science History
  • 1994
Organized markets for European immigrant servants in North America began in Jamestown around 1620 and ended in the ports of Philadelphia, Baltimore, and New Orleans around 1820. For two centuries

The Rise and Fall of Indentured Servitude in the Americas: An Economic Analysis

Indentured servitude appeared in Virginia by 1620. Initially a device used to transport European workers to the New World, over time servitude dwindled as black slavery grew in importance in the

Markets for migrants: English indentured servitude and emigration in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries

As a labour form, indentured servitude dominated British emigration to its New World colonies to a degree found with no other European nation. An estimated 50–60 percent of the labour flows to its

Immigrant Servant Labor: Their Occupational and Geographic Distribution in the Late Eighteenth- Century Mid-Atlantic Economy

  • F. Grubb
  • History, Economics
    Social Science History
  • 1985
Contract Labor played a critical role both in financing European trans-Atlantic migration and in providing a hirable labor force to work the estates of the New World. During the seventeenth century

Servants to slaves to servants: contract labour and European expansion

There have been two major intercontinental streams of movement of contract labour in the modern world. The first of these, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, involved an outflow from the

The Flow and the Composition of German Immigration to Philadelphia, 1727-1775

EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY German immigration to mainland British America was the only large influx of free white political aliens unfamiliar with the English language.1 The German settlers arrived

The Liverpool Emigrant Servant Trade and the Transition to Slave Labor in the Chesapeake, 1697-1707: Market Adjustments to War

Abstract The impact of Queen Anne′s War on the servant market is measured using evidence from 1440 servants embarking at Liverpool. War is associated with higher migration costs, lower emigration,

The Market Structure of Shipping German Immigrants to Colonial America

B Y THE END OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY the power of royally chartered trading companies to monopolize trans-Atlantic routes had waned. Within the confines of the Navigation Acts, eighteenth-century

From the Reformation to the French Revolution

Religious dissent has been a persistent feature of English and Welsh history for over four hundred years, influencing the economic, cultural, and political history of the two nations as well as their

The Standard of Living During American Industrialization: Evidence from the Brandywine Region, 1800–1860

IThe question of what happened to living standards during the process of industrialization has been a matter of some dispute for a long time. While the conflict has been sharpest among British
...