The Emergence of Medical Specialization in the Nineteenth Century

@article{Weisz2003TheEO,
  title={The Emergence of Medical Specialization in the Nineteenth Century},
  author={George Weisz},
  journal={Bulletin of the History of Medicine},
  year={2003},
  volume={77},
  pages={536 - 574}
}
  • G. Weisz
  • Published 5 September 2003
  • History
  • Bulletin of the History of Medicine
This essay reexamines the nineteenth-century origins of medical specialization. It suggests that by the 1880s, specialization had become perceived as a necessity of medical science as a result of the realization of two preconditions: First, a new collective desire to expand medical knowledge prompted clinical researchers to specialize; only specialization, it was believed, permitted the rigorous observation of many cases. Second, administrative rationality suggested that one could best manage… 

Tables from this paper

The Transformation of Australian Hospitals between the 1940s and the
In western countries hospitals have become central components in systems of medical care and institutions of vital interest to their people. Many were established early in the nineteenth century as
Physicians of colonial India (1757–1900)
  • Anu Saini
  • Medicine
    Journal of family medicine and primary care
  • 2016
TLDR
During this period, the practice of "Doctory" or Western medicine gained momentum in India, buoyed with the support of the British as well as Western-educated Indians, and all physicians and surgeons were generalists.
Shaping Doctors and Society
This article is an exploratory approach to the study of the Portuguese medical press, between the 1880s and 1926, that is, from the last decades of the liberal monarchy (1820–1910) to the end of the
Field formation : The rise of state medicine and the pre-professional era 1600-1850
TLDR
Broadly, the analysis shows a close relationship between the growth of professionalization in the field of medicine and the development of state prosperity in the Swedish welfare state.
[The legacy of Cabanis: a hypothesis on the roots of medical education in Brazil].
TLDR
The model of medical education still hegemonic in Brazil is still based upon the Cabanisian reform, holding a linear and Cartesian conceptual perspective, with a discipline-based curriculum, traditional teaching formats, and submission to corporate professional logic.
A brief history of pharmacy specialization in the United States
  • B. Erstad, C. E. Webb
  • Medicine, Political Science
    JACCP: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CLINICAL PHARMACY
  • 2020
TLDR
Debate regarding the need, types, and value of specialization in pharmacy seem destined to be driven not by intra‐ or inter‐professional debates within pharmacy, but by the needs, expectations, and values of patients and health care systems.
Revisiting Medicalization: A Critique of the Assumptions of What Counts As Medical Knowledge
TLDR
This article argues that the concept of medicalization is still fundamentally important to the sub-discipline of medical sociology, but that there is a need to revisit and critique its conceptualization, and argues for a ‘knowledge-based’ approach to medicalization.
The Early Modern Kidney—Nephrology in and about the Nineteenth Century (Part 1)
TLDR
Improvements in microscopy and tissue processing were instrumental in describing the cellular ultrastructure of the glomerulus and tubular segments, but their integrated function remained to be elucidated.
Historicizing health and education
TLDR
Using the archives of ophthalmology, the author demonstrates how new medical knowledge and scientific methods were the basis of investigations of the eyesight of school children in the early nineteenth century.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 89 REFERENCES
The Medical World of Early Modern France
TLDR
The Medical World of Early Modern France recounts the history of medicine in France between the sixteenth century and the French Revolution to provide a unique account of the evolution of medical ideas and practices in one of the major countries of early modern Europe.
The Emergence of Modern Universities in France, 1863-1914
George Weisz offers a comprehensive analysis of the French university system during the latter half of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Examining the major reforms of higher education
French medical culture in the nineteenth century
Ann LA BERGE and Mordechai FEINGOLD: Introduction. Matthew RAMSEY: Academic Medicine and Medical Industrialism: The Regulation of Secret Remedies in France, 1815-1830. Laurence BROCKLISS:
Incommunicable Knowledge: Science, Technology and the Clinical Art in Britain 1850-1914
TLDR
Comparison of scholarship from different areas shows that, behind its legal unity, the profession was extremely variegated in its attitudes, goals and standards, and especially in its definition, evaluation and use of science.
Medicine and Health-Against the Spirit of System: The French Impulse in Nineteenth-Century American Medicine
In this wide-ranging exploration of American medical culture, John Harley Warner offers the first in-depth study of a powerful intellectual and social influence: the radical empiricism of the Paris
American Medicine and the Public Interest
The reissue of Rosemary Stevens's groundbreaking book on the growth of medical specialties offers a new opportunity to consider the state of the American health care system. Updated with an extensive
The Politics of Evolution: Morphology, Medicine, and Reform in Radical London
Looking for the first time at the cut-price anatomy schools rather than genteel Oxbridge, Desmond winkles out pre- Darwinian evolutionary ideas in reform-minded and politically charged early
Professional and Popular Medicine in France 1770-1830: The Social World of Medical Practice
TLDR
The structure of medical practice: an overview after the end of the Old Regime and the medical profession in the early nineteenth century.
Charity and the London hospitals, 1850-1898
TLDR
The author investigates how and why Victorians contributed to show that benevolence was rarely amenable to a single form or reason, moving on to argue that philanthropy's contribution was modified at a financial and administrative level as hospitals shifted from being philanthropic to medical institutions.
Health and Healing in Eighteenth-Century Germany
Although the physicians and surgeons of eighteenth-century Germany have attracted previous scholarly inquiry, little is known about their day-to-day activities-and even less about the ways in which
...
...