The Emergence of Early Phoenicia

  title={The Emergence of Early Phoenicia},
  author={Gunnar Bekke Lehmann},
The transition from the Iron Age I to the Iron Age IIA during the 10th century BCE was a period of profound political and socio-economic transformations in the Levant. One of these developments was the emergence of early Phoenicia. In its course, Phoenicia emanated as an interface of international exchange connecting Mediterranean and continental economies of the Levant (for the latest synthesis examining Phoenicians see Sader 2019). This had a profound impact on the societies of the Southern… 
1 Citations

Figures and Tables from this paper

Mount Adir: An Iron I Polity in the Upper Galilee?

This is the final report of the excavations conducted at the site of the fortress of Mount Adir in two seasons separated by 43 years. In addition to summarizing the available data on the fortress,



Phoenicia in the Later Iron Age

  • G. Bunnens
  • History
    The Oxford Handbook of the Phoenician and Punic Mediterranean
  • 2019
All Phoenician city-states adopted an accommodating policy toward foreign powers, especially Assyria, and, despite violent clashes from the mid-eighth century bce onward, they could manage to preserve their role as middlemen in the trade relations of the ancient world.

Tel Dor and Iron Age IIA Chronology

  • Nadav Naʾaman
  • History
    Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research
  • 2016
The article discusses the date and historical background of the transfer of Tel Dor from Phoenician to Israelite hands. Archaeologically, the transfer was peaceful and took place in the late Iron Age

The Introduction of Domestic Camels to the Southern Levant: Evidence from the Aravah Valley

Abstract It was recently suggested that the introduction of the camel to the southern Levant occurred in the early Iron Age (late 2nd-early 1st millennia BCE). Our study of faunal remains from Iron

The growth of the Mediterranean economy in the early first millennium BC

One of the most crucial but poorly understood phases in the development of the Mediterranean economy is the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age. During this period of fundamental social

Canaanite Roots, Proto-Phoenicia, and the Early Phoenician Period

  • Ann E. Killebrew
  • History
    The Oxford Handbook of the Phoenician and Punic Mediterranean
  • 2019
The origins and ethnogenesis of a cultural entity, people, and territory referred to as “Phoenician” in later biblical and Classical sources and modern scholarship remain a topic of debate. This

The Population of Palestine in Iron Age II

The article examines the size of Palestine's population in the Iron Age II, specifically the eighth century B. C. E. In the first part the authors present an up-to-date discussion of the regional

The Debate over the Chronology of the Iron Age in the Southern Levant: Its history, the current situation, and a suggested resolution

Abstract The subject of the Oxford conference—the chronology of the Iron Age of the southern Levant in the 12th–9th centuries BCE in light of current debates and 14 C dating—is of great interest

Abandonment, Urbanization, Resettlement and the Formation of the Israelite State

  • A. Faust
  • History
    Near Eastern Archaeology
  • 2003
State formation. Urbanization. The transition from Iron I to Iron II. The tenth century question. The historicity of the Davidic monarchy. Is there anything fresh to add to our well-rehearsed debates

Report on the First Stage of the Iron Age Dating Project in Israel: Supporting a Low Chronology

The traditional chronology of ancient Israel in the 11th–9th centuries BCE was constructed mainly by correlating archaeological phenomena with biblical narratives and with Bible-derived chronology.

On the skirts of Canaan in the Iron Age : historical and topographical researches

The history of Canaan in the Iron Age is generally written from the perspective of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. The scope of this book is to inverse this relation and to focus on "the skirts of