The Effects of Tramadol and Its Metabolite on Glycine, γ-Aminobutyric AcidA, and N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptors Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes

@article{Hara2005TheEO,
  title={The Effects of Tramadol and Its Metabolite on Glycine, $\gamma$-Aminobutyric AcidA, and N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptors Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes},
  author={Koji Hara and Kouichiro Minami and Takeyoshi Sata},
  journal={Anesthesia \& Analgesia},
  year={2005},
  volume={100},
  pages={1400-1405}
}
We assessed the effects of tramadol, a centrally acting analgesic, and its major metabolite, on neurotransmitter-gated ion channels. Tramadol binds to &mgr;-opioid receptors with low affinity and inhibits reuptake of monoamines in the central nervous system. These actions are believed to primarily contribute to its antinociceptive effects. However, little is known about other sites of tramadol's action. We tested the effects of tramadol and its M1 metabolite (0.1–100 &mgr;M) on human… 

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