The Effects of Solitary Confinement on Prison Inmates: A Brief History and Review of the Literature

  title={The Effects of Solitary Confinement on Prison Inmates: A Brief History and Review of the Literature},
  author={Peter Scharff Smith},
  journal={Crime and Justice},
  pages={441 - 528}
The effects of solitary confinement have been debated since at least the middle of the nineteenth century when both Americans and Europeans began to question the then‐widespread use of solitary confinement of convicted offenders. A sizable and impressively sophisticated literature, now largely forgotten, accumulated for more than a half century and documented significant damage to prisoners. More recently the development of supermax prisons in the United States and human rights objections to… 

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