Natural colorants: Pigment stability and extraction yield enhancement via utilization of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods.
The fruit of Basella alba is often considered as waste so the study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of using the fruit as natural colorant using acidified methanol extraction. The extracted betacyanin pigments then were exposed to number of environmental conditions, which could destabilize the betacyanin molecules. These environmental conditions were included fourteen different pHs, various temperatures and presence or absence of light. The temperature stability of the betacyanin extract was calculated by reaction velocity constants (k) as well as the half-life time (t1/2). The results of the study showed that increasing in pH, temperature or exposure to light is able to spoil the betacyanin molecule. Copigmentation of betacyanin resulting in increase in both hypochromic effects and bathochromic shifts. Basella alba betacyanin extract was more stable at pH 4.1 and 6.0, temperature at 10° C, 20° C and 30° C both in the presence and absence of light. The results shows that betacyanin obtained from Basella alba fruit has a high potential to be used as a natural food colorant.