The Effect of Heat and Free Chlorine Treatments on the Surface Properties of Murine Norovirus

Abstract

Heat and free chlorine are among the most efficient and commonly used treatments to inactivate enteric viruses, but their global inactivation mechanisms have not been elucidated yet. These treatments have been shown to affect at least the capsid proteins of viruses and thus may affect the surface properties (i.e. electrostatic charge and hydrophobicity) of such particles. Our aim was to study the effects of heat and free chlorine on surface properties for a murine norovirus chosen as surrogate for human norovirus. No changes in the surface properties were observed with our methods for murine norovirus exposed to free chlorine. Only the heat treatment led to major changes in the surface properties of the virus with the expression of hydrophobic domains at the surface of the particles after exposure to a temperature of 55 °C. No modification of the expression of hydrophobic domains occurred after exposure to 60 °C, and the low hydrophobic state exhibited by infectious and inactivated particles after exposure to 60 °C appeared to be irreversible for inactivated particles only, which may provide a means to discriminate infectious from inactivated murine noroviruses. When exposed to a temperature of 72 °C or to free chlorine at a concentration of 50 mg/L, the genome became available for RNases.

DOI: 10.1007/s12560-016-9271-3

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Cite this paper

@article{Bri2016TheEO, title={The Effect of Heat and Free Chlorine Treatments on the Surface Properties of Murine Norovirus}, author={Adrien Bri{\'e} and Ravo Razafimahefa and Julie Loutreul and Aur{\'e}lie Robert and C Gantzer and Nicolas Boudaud and Isabelle Bertrand}, journal={Food and Environmental Virology}, year={2016}, volume={9}, pages={149-158} }