The Effect of Folate Fortification of Cereal-Grain Products on Blood Folate Status, Dietary Folate Intake, and Dietary Folate Sources among Adult Non-Supplement Users in the United States

@article{Dietrich2005TheEO,
  title={The Effect of Folate Fortification of Cereal-Grain Products on Blood Folate Status, Dietary Folate Intake, and Dietary Folate Sources among Adult Non-Supplement Users in the United States},
  author={Marion Dietrich and Coralie J P Brown and Gladys Block},
  journal={Journal of the American College of Nutrition},
  year={2005},
  volume={24},
  pages={266 - 274}
}
Objective: Since January 1998, the Federal Drug Administration has required folic acid fortification of all enriched cereal-grain products in the U.S. This program intended to increase folic acid intake among women of childbearing age in order to decrease their risk of pregnancies affected by neural tube defects. The aim of this study was to explore the changes in serum and erythrocyte folate status of the adult U.S. population following folic acid fortification of enriched cereal-grain… 

Total folate and folic acid intake from foods and dietary supplements in the United States: 2003-2006.

Improved total folate intake is warranted in targeted subgroups, which include women of childbearing age and non-Hispanic black women, whereas other population groups are at risk of excessive intake.

The rise and fall of blood folate in the United States emphasizes the need to identify all sources of folic acid.

  • L. Bailey
  • Medicine
    The American journal of clinical nutrition
  • 2007
A report by Pfeiffer et al (3) in this issue of the Journal provides the first opportunity to evaluate trends in blood folate concentrations in the US population that extend beyond the early postfortification phase by encompassing the more recent periods of 2001–2002 and 2003–2004.

The rise and fall of blood folate in the United States emphasizes the need to identify all sources of folic acid 1 , 2

A report by Pfeiffer et al (3) in this issue of the Journal provides the first opportunity to evaluate trends in blood folate concentrations in the US population that extend beyond the early postfortification phase by encompassing the more recent periods of 2001–2002 and 2003–2004.

Factors Influencing the Input Side of Folate Nutrition

An approach to detect stable isotopic folate in urine and confirmed pre-formed folate can be absorbed across the human are established and inform future fortification and supplementation policy.

Folate, Vitamin B12 and Homocysteine Status in Women of Childbearing Age: Baseline Data of Folic Acid Wheat Flour Fortification in Iran

An insufficient vitamin B12 as well as folate status is present in Iranian women of childbearing age and the efficacy and safety of folic acid fortification in Iran is shown.

Women Taking a Folic Acid Supplement in Countries with Mandatory Food Fortification Programs May Be Exceeding the Upper Tolerable Limit of Folic Acid: A Systematic Review

Folic acid supplement recommendations and the upper tolerable limit of 1000 mcg set by policy makers warrant careful review in light of potential adverse effects of exceeding the upper tolerance limit on folic acid absorption and metabolism, and subsequent impacts on women’s health during their childbearing years.

Folic acid fortification is safe, effective, and important from the cradle to the later years

Every segment of the US population appears to benefit from folic acid fortification, and preliminary data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging indicates that folate also may reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

Dietary folate intake: is there a need for folic acid fortification in the Netherlands?

Whether Dutch diets provide enough folate to meet folate requirements and how to deal with folic acid fortification are studied and overall, folate reference intakes can be lowered because dietary folate is 82% bioavailable instead of 50%, which is currently assumed.

An overview of folate status in a population-based study from São Paulo, Brazil and the potential impact of 10 years of national folic acid fortification policy

The deficiency of folate is very low, and food fortification contributed to folate intake and had a notable influence on rankings of food contributors of folates.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 33 REFERENCES

Effect of food fortification on folic acid intake in the United States.

Typical intakes of folic acid from fortified foods are more than twice the level originally predicted, and the effect of this much higher level of fortification must be carefully assessed, especially before calls for higher levels of fortify are considered.

The effect of folic acid fortification on plasma folate and total homocysteine concentrations.

The fortification of enriched grain products with folic acid was associated with a substantial improvement in folate status in a population of middle-aged and older adults.

Folic acid intake from fortification in United States exceeds predictions.

Folic acid fortification resulted in a mean increase in folic acid intake that was approximately twice as large as previously projected and on the prevalence of individuals with inadequate folate intake and with high folic Acid intake.

Folate status in women of childbearing age--United States, 1999.

  • Medicine
    MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
  • 2000
To assess levels of folic acid among childbearing-aged women, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) compared serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations for child bearing-aging women who participated in the 1999 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999) to child Bearing- aged women who participate in the Third National health and nutrition examination Survey ( NHANES III, 1988-1994).

Folate status in women of childbearing age, by race/ethnicity--United States, 1999-2000, 2001-2002, and 2003-2004.

  • Medicine
    MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
  • 2007
Comparisons of trends in serum folate and red blood cell (RBC) folate levels by race/ethnicity from the 1999--2000 survey through the 2003-2004 survey indicated that median folate concentrations among nonpregnant women of childbearing age decreased 16% from 1999-2000 through 2003- 2004, and RBC folate concentration decreased 8%.

Folate Status in Women of Childbearing Age Residing in Southern California after Folic Acid Fortification

The data suggest that women of childbearing age are achieving positive folate balance and RCF concentrations associated with reduced risk of NTD following FA fortification of the food supply.

Dietary folate consumption and breast cancer risk.

The association between dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk and its modification by methionine and alcohol intake in a cohort study in Canada was examined.

Dietary Folate Intake, Alcohol, and Risk of Breast Cancer in a Prospective Study of Postmenopausal Women

The results suggest that the risks of postmenopausal breast cancer may be increased among women with low intakes of folate if they consume alcohol-containing beverages.

Blood folate and vitamin B12: United States, 1988-94.

Inadequate folate status may be more prevalent among non-Hispanic black and Mexican American people, and data suggest a modest prevalence of low serum B12 concentrations.