The Effect of Echinacea (Echinacea purpurea Root) on Cytochrome P450 Activity in Vivo

  title={The Effect of Echinacea (Echinacea purpurea Root) on Cytochrome P450 Activity in Vivo},
  author={Jude Christopher Gorski and Shiew-Mei Huang and Amar G. Pinto and Mitchell A. Hamman and Janna Hilligoss and Narjis A. Zaheer and Mehul Desai and Margaret Miller and Stephen D. Hall},
  journal={Clinical Pharmacology \& Therapeutics},

Echinacea purpurea Significantly Induces Cytochrome P450 3A Activity but Does Not Alter Lopinavir‐Ritonavir Exposure in Healthy Subjects

Study Objective. To determine the influence of Echinacea purpurea on the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir‐ritonavir and on cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A and P‐glycoprotein activity by using the probe

Cytochrome P450 inhibitory action of Echinacea preparations differs widely and co‐varies with alkylamide content

Echinacea preparations are one of the best selling herbal medicinal products with a well established therapeutic use in the prophylaxis of upper respiratory tract infections, but information about their ability to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) is fragmentary and a lack of phytochemical characterization of previously tested preparations is complicated.

The in‐vitro effect of complementary and alternative medicines on cytochrome P450 2C9 activity

The aim of this study is to establish the inhibitory effects of 14 commonly used complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) on the metabolism of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates


Echinacea purpurea L. is one among the plant with both pharmacological and the properties of the aesthetic enjoyment that was found to contain immunostimulant, antileishmanial, cytochrome p450, apoptotic – mitotic and anti‐microbial activities.

Safety of Herbal Medicinal Products: Echinacea and Selected Alkylamides Do Not Induce CYP3A4 mRNA Expression

It is concluded that Echinaforce is unlikely to affect CYP3A4 transcriptional levels, even at concentrations which can inhibit the enzymatic activity of CYP4, and provides further evidence for the lack of interactions between Echinacea and conventional drugs.

Interactions of echinacea and spilanthes with human metabolizing systems

Spilanthol, the only major isobutyl amide found in the ethanolic preparation of Spilanthes acmella whole flowering plant was isolated and it showed strong inhibitory properties against CYP2E1.

The effect of Echinacea purpurea on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel.

The applied E. purpurea product at the recommended dose may be combined safely with docetaxel in cancer patients and did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of docetAXel in this study.



The effects of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) on human cytochrome P450 activity

Use of echinacea in medicine.

  • S. Percival
  • Environmental Science
    Biochemical pharmacology
  • 2000

Medicinal properties of Echinacea: a critical review.

  • B. Barrett
  • Biology, Medicine
    Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology
  • 2003
Effectiveness in treating illness or in enhancing human health has not yet been proven beyond a reasonable doubt, while there is a great deal of moderately good-quality scientific data regarding E. purpurea.

An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures.

Combined phenotypic assessment of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A, N‐acetyltransferase‐2, and xanthine oxidase with the “Cooperstown cocktail”

Simultaneous administration of several probes enhances the utility of phenotyping, but poor specificity, side effects, and use of drugs not approved by the Food and Drug Administration limit the

Hepatic but not intestinal CYP3A4 displays dose‐dependent induction by efavirenz in humans

The capacity of the non‐nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz to induce either liver CYP3A4 or intestinal CYP3A4, or both, as well as intestinal P‐glycoprotein, was evaluated in

Ineffectiveness of Echinacea for Prevention of Experimental Rhinovirus Colds

Echinacea preparation had no significant effect on either the occurrence of infection or the severity of illness in subjects treated with experimental rhinovirus colds.

Effect of St John's wort on the pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine

The effect of St John's wort on P‐glycoprotein activity in vivo was examined with use of fexofenadine as selective probe drug.

Identification of human liver cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the in vitro metabolism of cyclobenzaprine.

  • R. WangL. LiuH. Cheng
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals
  • 1996
It is suggested that cytochrome P4502D6 plays only a minor role in cyclobenzaprine N-demethylation whereas 3A4 and 1A2 are primarily responsible for cyclobensaprine metabolism in human liver microsomes.