The Ecology of Mutualism

@article{Boucher1982TheEO,
  title={The Ecology of Mutualism},
  author={Douglas H. Boucher and Samuel W. James and Kathleen H. Keeler},
  journal={Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics},
  year={1982},
  volume={13},
  pages={315-347}
}
Elementary ecology texts tell us that organisms interact in three fundamental ways, generally given the names competition, predation, and mutualism. The third member has gotten short shrift (264), and even its name is not generally agreed on. Terms that may be considered synonyms, in whole or part, are symbiosis, commensalism, cooperation, protocooperation, mutual aid, facilitation, reciprocal altruism, and entraide. We use the term mutualism, defined as "an interaction between species that is… 
Mutualism, Facilitation, and the Structure of Ecological Communities
TLDR
Positive interactions occur when one organism makes the local environment more favorable for another either directly ( such as by reducing thermal stress via shading or decreasing wind stress via baffling) or indirectly (such as by removing competitors or deterring predators of that species).
Constraints on the Evolution of Mutualisms
  • H. Howe
  • Environmental Science
    The American Naturalist
  • 1984
TLDR
A brief discussion of pollination and seed dispersal suggests checks to mutualistic coevolution, and indicates that reciprocal adaptation, where it occurs, is general rather than specific.
History of Ecological Sciences, Part 52: Symbiosis Studies
Symbiosis is a term that identifies persistent relationships between species, according to Surindar Paracer and Vernon Ahmadjian (2000:6). Their textbook discussed three kinds: commensalism,
The Costs of Mutualism1
TLDR
The idea that the ecology and evolution of mutualisms are shaped by diverse costs, not only by the benefits they confer is examined, which helps link mutualism to antagonisms such as herbivory, predation, and parasitism.
The Costs of Mutualism
TLDR
The idea that the ecology and evolution of mutualisms are shaped by diverse costs, not only by the benefits they confer is examined, which helps link mutualism to antagonisms such as herbivory, predation, and parasitism.
Our Current Understanding of Mutualism
  • J. Bronstein
  • Environmental Science
    The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1994
TLDR
The recent primary literature is reviewed in order to assess quentitatively the frequency of studies of mutualism, the types of questions they address, and their general scientific approach, and eight research questions whose answers have the potential to reveal broad-based generalizations about the evolution and ecology of Mutualism.
Biotic environments and the maintenance of sex–some evidence from mutualistic symbioses
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It is concluded that the patterns that emerge from an analysis of 10 kinds of mutualistic symbiosis strongly support predictions that sex is usually reduced in inhabitants in comparison to related free-living taxa, although it remains widespread in exhabitants.
Past, present and future: Geographic and temporal variation in a fig–fig wasp mutualism
TLDR
The main goal of this dissertation is to investigate the effects of past and current environmental variation on the dynamics of species involved in obligate plant-insect interactions, and to model this dynamic in the context of future climate scenarios by studying a fig–fig wasp system as a biological model.
The evolutionary implications of exploitation in mycorrhizas
TLDR
It is proposed that researchers should not assume mycorrhizas are mutualistic based upon structural characteristics or limited functional studies showing bilateral exchange and should view them as occupying a wider range on the symbiotic continuum, including commensalism and antagonism, and recommended that comparative studies of mycor rhizas incorporate other types of root associations that have traditionally been considered antagonistic.
Boundary lines in symbiosis forms
TLDR
This communication proposes a new classification scheme, which simply and comprehensively illustrates relationships between the various kinds of associations, and indicates where modifications to the scheme are possible over time.
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