The Ecological Impact of Biofuels

  title={The Ecological Impact of Biofuels},
  author={Joseph E. Fargione and Richard J. Plevin and Jason D. Hill},
  journal={Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics},
The ecological impact of biofuels is mediated through their effects on land, air, and water. In 2008, about 33.3 million ha were used to produce food-based biofuels and their coproducts. Biofuel production from food crops is expected to increase 170% by 2020. Economic model estimates for land-use change (LUC) associated with food-based biofuels are 67–365 ha 10−6 l−1, leading to increased greenhouse gas emissions for decades compared to business as usual. Biodiversity is reduced by about 60% in… 

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