The Earth as an extrasolar transiting planet - II: HARPS and UVES detection of water vapor, biogenic O$_2$, and O$_3$

@article{Arnold2014TheEA,
  title={The Earth as an extrasolar transiting planet - II: HARPS and UVES detection of water vapor, biogenic O\$\_2\$, and O\$\_3\$},
  author={Luc Arnold and David Ehrenreich and Alfred Vidal-Madjar and Xavier Dumusque and Christian Nitschelm and Richard R. Querel and Pascal Hedelt and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Berthier and Christophe Lovis and Claire Moutou and Roger Ferlet and D. Crooker},
  journal={arXiv: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics},
  year={2014}
}
The atmospheric composition of transiting exoplanets can be characterized during transit by spectroscopy. For the transit of an Earth twin, models predict that biogenic $O_2$ and $O_3$ should be detectable, as well as water vapour, a molecule linked to habitability as we know it on Earth. The aim is to measure the Earth radius versus wavelength $\lambda$ - or the atmosphere thickness $h(\lambda)$ - at the highest spectral resolution available to fully characterize the signature of Earth seen as… 
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