The Early Years of HIV/AIDS

  title={The Early Years of HIV/AIDS},
  author={Robert C. Gallo},
  pages={1728 - 1730}
It is almost 20 years since HIV was first isolated and identified as the cause of AIDS. This Viewpoint by Gallo of the Insitute of Human Virology in Baltimore, Maryland, provides an insider9s view of the frustrations and triumphs that led to the discovery of HIV as the cause of AIDS. 

Paper Mentions

HIV and AIDS: 20 years of science
Some of the other important areas of accomplishment include the development of blood tests for HIV and increased knowledge of the molecular virology, epidemiology and pathogenesis of this virus. Expand
The first postmodern pandemic: 25 years of HIV/ AIDS.
To meet the goal of universal access to prevention, treatment and care by 2010 would require a quadrupling of funding to an estimated US$42 billion by 2010, including adequate overall strengthening of healthcare systems, but in any case, the world will have to learn to live with HIV for the foreseeable future. Expand
The saga of the HIV controversy
Two scientists were honored recently with a Nobel Prize for the discovery of HIV. A third scientist was ignored. Over the past two decades, there has been a bitter controversy around the discovery ofExpand
In search of a treatment for HIV--current therapies and the role of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs).
This review gives an overview of the disease and addresses the drugs currently used for treatment, with specific emphasis on new developments within the class of allosteric non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Expand
Examining the discovery of the human retrovirus.
Retroviruses have been found in many bird and animal species where they often cause various types of cancer. Dr. Robert Gallo's contribution to the field of retrovirology and the link he establishedExpand
Cytopathic Mechanisms of HIV-1
  • J. Costin
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Virology Journal
  • 2007
Information is gathered on TM in an attempt to shed some light on the functional regions of this protein, which is not well understood and is fiercely debated. Expand
Molecular biology of the human immunodeficiency virus: current and future targets for intervention.
  • P. Krogstad
  • Medicine
  • Seminars in pediatric infectious diseases
  • 2003
This review presents an overview of HIV replication, emphasizing recently recognized cellular and viral molecules that may be exploited in future pharmacological approaches to prevent and treat infection with HIV. Expand
HIV-1 integrase: from biology to chemotherapeutics.
This review focuses on the existing knowledge of the biology of HIV-1 IN with emphasis on the mechanism of integration, structure and function and the technologies for measuring IN activity, followed by the current trends on designing HIV- 1 IN inhibitors with the aid of molecular informatics. Expand
Efavirenz a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of first-generation: Approaches based on its medicinal chemistry.
The aims of the present review are to compare EFV and its derivatives using medicinal chemistry and to describe the main synthetic routes. Expand
The HIV vaccine saga
This "Commentary" analyzes the reasons that the development of a vaccine has been so difficult, and proposes a plan to work towards an immunological approach to investigate the best vaccine candidates in the first world in individuals who are already infected. Expand


Human retroviruses in the second decade: A personal perspective
  • R. Gallo
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Nature Medicine
  • 1995
Research should now aim at the eradication of human retroviruses and on treatment of infected people. Expand
LAV revisited: origins of the early HIV-1 isolates from Institut Pasteur.
Two of the first human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) strains isolated were authenticated by reanalyzing original cultured samples stored at the Collection Nationale de Culture desExpand
Human retroviruses after 20 years: a perspective from the past and prospects for their future control
  • R. Gallo
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Immunological reviews
  • 2002
For HIV, the formidable tasks now ahead in part demand new kinds of talent, talents that will foster greater insights into the development of therapy for the developing countries, new forms of less toxic therapies for all infected persons, a continued and expanded commitment to education, and a persistent ‘never say die’ commitment to thedevelopment of a truly preventive vaccine. Expand
Human T-lymphotropic retroviruses
The first human retroviruses have been discovered during the past six years. They cause two diseases which involve disturbances of the growth of the T4 lymphocyte, a remarkably specific target cellExpand
Sera screened for antibodies to proteins of the novel human T-lymphotropic retrovirus (leukaemia virus), HTLV-III, recently isolated from cultured T cells of AIDS patients strongly indicate that the antibodies to HT LV are diagnostic of AIDS or indicate significant risk of the disease, and suggest that HT LV is the primary cause of human AIDS. Expand
Multiple viral strategies of HTLV-1 for dysregulation of cell growth control.
  • M. Yoshida
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Annual review of immunology
  • 2001
HTLV-1 is a retrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and neurological disorder, the tropical spastic paraparesis, and the pathogenesis apparently results from the pleiotropic function of Tax protein, which is a key regulator of viral replication. Expand
Virus Hunting: Aids, Cancer, And The Human Retrovirus: A Story Of Scientific Discovery
A Scientists Look At the Science and Politics of AIDS, and What The authors Can Do About AIDS and the AIDS Virus Epilogue. Expand
The path to the discoveries of human retroviruses.
  • R. Gallo
  • Philosophy, Medicine
  • Journal of human virology
  • 2000
The 1999 Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmsteaedter Prize was awarded to Robert C. Gallo, M.D. for his achievements in the pursuit of cancer related viruses and the growth in culture of human T-cells which led to the discovered of the first human retroviruses and, as a direct consequence, the discovery of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the third known human retrovirus. Expand
Reverse transcriptase activity of human acute leukaemic cells: purification of the enzyme, response to AMV 70S RNA, and characterization of the DNA product.
A particulate fraction from human leukaemic blood cells contains an RNAase-sensitive endogenous DNA polymerase system that transcribes heteropolymeric regions of AMV 70S RNA and other template characteristics are similar to those of RNA tumour virus reverse transcriptase. Expand
Selective in vitro growth of T lymphocytes from normal human bone marrows.
The T cells exhibited a strict growth dependence upon Phytohemagglutinin-stimulated normal human lymphocytes and were consistently negative for Epstein-Barr viral information. Expand