The Early Toxicology of Physostigmine

@article{Proudfoot2006TheET,
  title={The Early Toxicology of Physostigmine},
  author={Alex T. Proudfoot},
  journal={Toxicological Reviews},
  year={2006},
  volume={25},
  pages={99-138}
}
Mid-19th century European visitors to Old Calabar, an eastern province of Nigeria, could not avoid becoming aware of native belief in the power of the seeds of a local plant to determine whether individuals were innocent or guilty of some serious misdemeanour. The seeds were those of a previously unknown legume and soon referred to as the ordeal bean of Old Calabar. Their administration was known locally as ‘chop nut’. Missionaries who arrived in Calabar in 1846 estimated that chop nut caused… 
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References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 63 REFERENCES
IX.— Description of the Plant which produces the Ordeal Bean of Calabar
It has been long known that in various parts of Africa, the natives are in the habit of subjecting to the ordeal of poison parties who are suspected of crimes. On the east coast, we meet with
XLVIII.— On the Physiological Action of the Calabar Bean (Physostigma venenosum, Balf. )
TLDR
Ophthalmic medicine has adopted this agent as one of its important remedies, and there can be little doubt that general medical practice will soon include in its Pharmacopœia a drug of so great energy.
A Brief Account of the Literary History, Botanical Characters, and Therapeutical Properties of the Ordeal Bean of Old Calabar
TLDR
When these syphilitic deposits occur in the liver, they remain for some timc without very serious results; but the inorganised albuminous matter of which they consist, lilke the matter of tubercle, may at length soften and decompose; and gangrenous or destruietive inflanmmation may be set up in the contiguous tissues.
On the Properties of the Ordeal-Bean of Old Calabar, Western Africa
Various travellers, and other authors on the manners and customs of the negro tribes of Western Africa, make mention of the ordeal by poison as a mode of trial in that part of the African continent,
Calabar Bean in Tetanus
TLDR
In the majority of cases of tetanus the medulla and cord are both compromised, but these hardly seem to me to illustrate the influence which calabar bean exercises over the first class of cases, and of which the following instance of the disease is an example.
Note on a Case of Poisoning by the Calabar Bean
TLDR
Considering the limited number of cases that have been recorded touching its influence upon the natives of this and other European countries, it may not be without interest that the following case does not add much to what is already known regarding the action of this poisonous bean.
XXI.—An Experimental Research on the Antagonism between the Actions of Physostigma and Atropia
It is natural to suppose that soon after it became known that injurious effects follow the introduction of certain substances into the system, attempts were made to remedy these effects, and also to
Lecture on the Antagonism between the Actions of Active Substances
  • T. Fraser
  • Medicine
    British medical journal
  • 1872
TLDR
It is anticipated that the counteracting influence of atropia upon the lethal action of physotigma is successfully exerted only withit a limited range of doses, and that this range may be determined by experimental research.
On the Calabar Bean as a New Agent in Ophthalmic Medicine
TLDR
I endeavoured to ascertain from experiments of my own, and from the writings of previous observers, whether any of the common vegetable principles possessed this property, until my friend Dr Fraser informed me that he had seen contraction of the pupil result from the local application of an extract of the ordeal bean of Calabar.
Observations on Some of the Effects of the Application of the Calabar “Ordeal Bean” to the Eye*
TLDR
A word on the subject of dislocations, which are unquestionably cases of some rarity ; the majority of the so-called cases being a separation or dislocation of the epiphyses, to which the authors have just alluded.
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